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Introduction to the NHMFL Pulsed Field Facility at LANL

Information on the physical set-up of pulsed field measurements

Read about lock-in amplifiers and their role in your measurements

Information about noise and ways to eliminate it from your measurements

How to collect and evaluate your measurement data

Information on optical spectroscopy

Information about time-resolved optics

Information on de Haas van Alphen Effect measurements

Information on Shubinkov de Haas Effect measurements

Information on Absolute Resistivity measurements

Information on Heat Capacity measurements

Information on RF Penetration Depth measurements

Intrinsic Noise


There are three types of intrinsic noise: Johnson noise, shot noise, and 1/f. Johnson noise is the result of thermal fluctuations. The rms Johnson voltage noise is:

Where k is Boltzmann's constant, T is temperature, R is the resistance of the sample, and is the bandwidth.

When a current is passed through a material, shot noise occurs. It is only seen when electron flow is uncorrelated so is usually not visible in a metallic system.

1/f noise is usually mysterious, associated often with semi conductors in instruments, and intrinsic.