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Samuel Thomas Picraux



Ph.D., Engineering Science & Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, 1969

M.S., Engineering Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena,1967

B.S., Electrical Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, 1965


Professional Appointments

Chief Scientist,, Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies 2005 - present

Thrust Leader, DOE Energy Frontier Research Center for Nanostructures for Electrical Energy Storage 2009 - present


Professional Societies

Materials Research Society

American Physical Society

American Association for the Advancement of Science



Los Alamos National Laboratory Postdoc Distinguished Mentor Award, 2011

Los Alamos National Laboratory Fellow, 2009

Nanotech Briefs Nano 50 Award, Technologies category: Directed Assembly of Nanowire-Metal Contacts, 2008

Missouri Honor Award for Distinguished Service in Engineering, 2006

DOE Energy 100 and Energy at 23 Awards: Strained-Layer Semiconductors (team award), 2001

Outstanding Intellectuals of 21st Century, 2000

DOE/BES Materials Science Award for Sustained Outstanding Research: Growth Science,1994

DOE/BES Materials Science Award for Sustained Outstanding Research: Ion Beam Analysis, 1992

E.O. Lawrence Award for Materials Research, 1990

Who’s Who in Science & Engineering; Who’s Who in America; Who’s Who in the World, 1990-pres

DOE/BES Materials Science Award for Significant Implication for Energy Technology,1985

Fellow: Amer. Physical Society (78); Amer. Assoc. for the Adv. Science (99); Materials Research Society (08), 1978-pres

Fulbright Fellow, 1965-66



[Clement, T * Ingole, S * Ketharanathan, S * Drucker, J * Picraux, ST], "In situ studies of semiconductor nanowire growth using optical reflectometry", APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, Vol.89, iss.16, 163125, OCT 16 2006.

[Thorp, JC * Sieradzki, K * Tang, L * Crozier, PA * Misra, A * Nastasi, M * Mitlin, D * Picraux, ST], "Formation of nanoporous noble metal thin films by electrochemical dealloying of PtxSi1-x", APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, Vol.88, iss.3, 033110, JAN 16 2006.

[Egatz-Gomez, A * Melle, S * Garcia, AA * Lindsay, SA * Marquez, M * Dominguez-Garcia, P * Rubio, MA * Picraux, ST * Taraci, JL * Clement, T * Yang, D * Hayes, MA * Gust, D], "Discrete magnetic microfluidics", APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, Vol.89, iss.3, 034106, JUL 17 2006.

[McLauchlin, ML * Yang, DQ * Aella, P * Garcia, AA * Picraux, ST * Hayes, MA], "Evaporative properties and pinning strength of laser-ablated, hydrophilic sites on lotus-leaf-like, nanostructured surfaces", LANGMUIR, Vol.23, iss.9, p.4871-4877, APR 24 2007.

[Garcia, AA * Egatz-Gomez, A * Lindsay, SA * Dominguez-Garcia, P * Melle, S * Marquez, M * Rubio, MA * Picraux, ST * Yang, DQ * Aella, P * Hayes, MA * Gust, D * Loyprasert, S * Vazquez-Alvarez, T * Wang, J], "Magnetic movement of biological fluid droplets", JOURNAL OF MAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC MATERIALS, Vol.311, iss.1, p.238-243, APR 2007.

[Ingole, S * Aella, P * Hearne, SJ * Picraux, ST], "Directed assembly of nanowire contacts using electrodeposition", APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, Vol.91, iss.3, 033106, JUL 16 2007.

[Egatz-Gomez, A * Schneider, J * Aella, P * Yang, D * Dominguez-Garcia, P * Lindsay, S * Picraux, ST * Rubio, MA * Melle, S * Marquez, M * Garcia, AA], "Silicon nanowire and polyethylene superhydrophobic surfaces for discrete magnetic microfluidics", APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE, Vol.254, iss.1, spec. iss.SI, p.330-334, OCT 31 2007.

[Yang, D * Piech, M * Bell, NS * Gust, D * Vail, S * Garcia, AA * Schneider, J * Park, CD * Hayes, MA * Picraux, ST], "Photon control of liquid motion on reversibly photoresponsive surfaces", LANGMUIR, Vol.23, iss.21, p.10864-10872, OCT 9 2007.

[Aella, P * Ingole, S * Petuskey, WT * Picraux, ST], "Influence of plasma stimulation on Si nanowire nucleation and orientation dependence", ADVANCED MATERIALS, Vol.19, iss.18, p.2603-+, SEP 17 2007.

[Ingole, S * Aella, P * Manandhar, P * Chikkannanavar, SB * Akhadov, EA * Smith, DJ * Picraux, ST], "Ex situ doping of silicon nanowires with boron", JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, Vol.103, iss.10, 104302, MAY 15 2008.

[Prasankumar, RP * Choi, S * Trugman, SA * Picraux, ST * Taylor, AJ], "Ultrafast electron and hole dynamics in germanium nanowires", NANO LETTERS, Vol.8, iss.6, p.1619-1624, JUN 2008.

[Sierra-Sastre, Y * Choi, S * Picraux, ST * Batt, CA], "Vertical growth of Ge nanowires from biotemplated Au nanoparticle catalysts", JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, Vol.130, iss.32, p.10488-+, AUG 13 2008.

[Prasankumar, R.P. * Choi, S.G. * Wang, G.T. * Picraux, S.T. * Taylor, A.J.], "Ultrafast carrier dynamics in semiconductor nanowires", 2008 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), May 2008.

[Choi, SG * Dattelbaum, AM * Picraux, ST * Srivastava, SK * Palmstrom, CJ], "Optical properties and critical-point energies of BaTiO3 (001) from 1.5 to 5.2 eV", JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B, Vol.26, iss.5, p.1718-1722, SEP-OCT 2008.

[Ingole, S * Manandhar, P * Chikkannanavar, SB * Akhadov, EA * Picraux, ST], "Charge Transport Characteristics in Boron-Doped Silicon Nanowires", IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, Vol.55, iss.11, p.2931-2938, NOV 2008.

[Ingole, S * Manandhar, P * Wright, JA * Nazaretski, E * Thompson, JD * Picraux, ST], "Assembly and magnetic properties of nickel nanoparticles on silicon nanowires", APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, Vol.94, iss.22, 223118, JUN 1 2009.

[Swadener, JG * Picraux, ST], "Strain distributions and electronic property modifications in Si/Ge axial nanowire heterostructures", JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, Vol.105, iss.4, 044310, FEB 15 2009.

[Leonard, F * Talin, AA * Swartzentruber, BS * Picraux, ST], "Diameter-Dependent Electronic Transport Properties of Au-Catalyst/Ge-Nanowire Schottky Diodes", PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, Vol.102, iss.10, 106805, MAR 13 2009.

[Antoniou, A. * Bhattacharrya, D. * Baldwin, J.K. * Goodwin, P. * Nastasi, M. * Picraux, S.T. * Misra, A.], "Controlled nanoporous Pt morphologies by varying deposition parameters", Applied Physics Letters, Vol.95, iss.7, 073116, 2009.

[Prasankumar, R.P. * Upadhya, P.C. * Li, Q. * Smith, N. * Choi, S.G. * Azad, A.K. * Talbayev, D. * Wang, G.T. * Fischer, A.J. * Hollingsworth, J. * Trugman, S.A. * Picraux, S.T. * Taylor, A.J.], "Ultrafast carrier dynamics in semiconductor nanowires", Proceedings of the SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, vol.7406, p.74060E, 2009.

[Leonard, F. * Talin, A.A. * Katzenmeyer, A. * Swartzentruber, B.S. * Picraux, S.T. * Toimil-Molares, E. * Cederberg, J.G. * Wang, X. * Hersee, S.D. * Rishinaramangalum, A.], "Electronic transport in nanowires: from injection-limited to space-charge-limited behavior", Proceedings of the SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, vol.7406, p.74060G, 2009.

[Li, HQ * Misra, A * Baldwin, JK * Picraux, ST], "Synthesis and characterization of nanoporous Pt-Ni alloys", APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, Vol.95, iss.20, 201902, NOV 16 2009.

[Romano, L * Rudawski, NG * Holzworth, MR * Jones, KS * Choi, SG * Picraux, ST], "Nanoscale manipulation of Ge nanowires by ion irradiation", JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, Vol.106, iss.11, 114316, DEC 1 2009.

[Talin, AA * Leonard, F * Katzenmeyer, AM * Swartzentruber, BS * Picraux, ST * Toimil-Molares, ME * Cederberg, JG * Wang, X * Hersee, SD * Rishinaramangalum, A], "Transport characterization in nanowires using an electrical nanoprobe", SEMICONDUCTOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, Vol.25, iss.2, spec. iss.SI, 024015, FEB 2010.

[Sierra-Sastre, Y * Dayeh, SA * Picraux, ST * Batt, CA], "Epitaxy of Ge Nanowires Grown from Biotemplated Au Nanoparticle Catalysts", ACS NANO, Vol.4, iss.2, p.1209-1217, FEB 2010.

[Manandhar, P * Akhadov, EA * Tracy, C * Picraux, ST], "Integration of Nanowire Devices in Out-of-Plane Geometry", NANO LETTERS, Vol.10, iss.6, p.2126-2132, JUN 2010.

[Le, S.T. * Jannaty, P. * Zaslavsky, A. * Dayeh, S.A. * Picraux, S.T.], "Growth, electrical rectification, and gate control in axial in situ doped p-n junction germanium nanowires", Applied Physics Letters, Vol.96, iss.26, 262102, 20100628.

[Picraux, S.T. * Dayeh, S.A. * Manandhar, P. * Perea, D.E. * Choi, S.G.], "Silicon and germanium nanowires: Growth, properties, and integration", JOM, Vol.62, iss.4, p.35-43, April 2010.

[Seo, M. * Boubanga-Tombet, S. * Yoo, J. * Ku, Z. * Gin, A.V. * Picraux, S.T. * Brueck, S.R.J. * Taylor, A.J. * Prasankumar, R.P.], "Ultrafast optical wide field microscopy", Optics Express, Vol.21, iss.7, p.8763-8772, 2013.

[Prasankumar, RP * Choi, SG * Wang, GT * Upadhya, PC * Trugman, SA * Picraux, ST * Taylor, AJ], "Ultrafast Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductor Nanowires", Springer Series in Chemical Physics, Vol.92, p.271-273, 2009.

[Dayeh, SA * Picraux, ST], "Direct Observation of Nanoscale Size Effects in Ge Semiconductor Nanowire Growth", NANO LETTERS, Vol.10, iss.10, p.4032-4039, OCT 2010.

[Dayeh, S.A. * Picraux, S.T.], "Axial Ge/Si nanowire heterostructure tunnel FETs", ECS Transactions, Vol.33, iss.6, p.373-378, 2010.

[Dayeh, S.A. * Picraux, S.T.], "Ge/Si core/multi-shell heterostructure FETs", ECS Transactions, Vol.33, iss.6, p.681-686, 2010.

[Dayeh, S.A. * Jianyu Huang * Gin, A.V. * Picraux, S.T.], "Synthesis, fabrication, and characterization of Ge/Si axial nanowire heterostructure tunnel FETs", Proceedings 2010 10th IEEE International Conference on Nanotechnology and Joint Symposium with Nano Korea 2010 KINTEX (IEEE-NANO 2010), p.238-41, 2010.

[Dayeh, SA * Gin, AV * Picraux, ST], "Advanced core/multishell germanium/silicon nanowire heterostructures: Morphology and transport", APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, Vol.98, iss.16, 163112, APR 18 2011.

[Li, XL * Qin, YJ * Picraux, ST * Guo, ZX], "Noncovalent assembly of carbon nanotube-inorganic hybrids", JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY, Vol.21, iss.21, p.7527-7547, 2011.

[Liu, XH * Zhang, LQ * Zhong, L * Liu, Y * Zheng, H * Wang, JW * Cho, JH * Dayeh, SA * Picraux, ST * Sullivan, JP * Mao, SX * Ye, ZZ * Huang, JY], "Ultrafast Electrochemical Lithiation of Individual Si Nanowire Anodes", NANO LETTERS, Vol.11, iss.6, p.2251-2258, JUN 2011.

[Seo, M.A. * Dayeh, S.A. * Upadhya, P.C. * Picraux, S.T. * Martinez, J. * Swartzentruber, B.S. * Taylor, A.J. * Prasankumar, R.P.], "Polarization anisotropy of transient carrier dynamics in single Si nanowires", CLEO: 2011 - Laser Science to Photonic Applications, 2011.

[Dayeh, SA * Mack, NH * Huang, JY * Picraux, ST], "Advanced core/multishell germanium/silicon nanowire heterostructures: The Au-diffusion bottleneck", APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, Vol.99, iss.2, 023102, JUL 11 2011.

[Kar, A * Upadhya, PC * Dayeh, SA * Picraux, ST * Taylor, AJ * Prasankumar, RP], "Probing Ultrafast Carrier Dynamics in Silicon Nanowires", IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, Vol.17, iss.4, p.889-895, JUL-AUG 2011.

[Perea, D.E. * Li, N. * Dickerson, R.M. * Misra, A. * Picraux, S.T.], "Controlling heterojunction abruptness in VLS-grown semiconductor nanowires via in situ catalyst alloying", Nano Letters, Vol.11, iss.8, p.3117-3122, 20110810.

[Liu, X.H. * Zheng, H. * Zhong, L. * Huang, S. * Karki, K. * Zhang, L.Q. * Liu, Y. * Kushima, A. * Liang, W.T. * Wang, J.W. * Cho, J.-H. * Epstein, E. * Dayeh, S.A. * Picraux, S.T. * Zhu, T. * Li, J. * Sullivan, J.P. * Cumings, J. * Wang, C. * Mao, S.X. * Ye, Z.Z. * Zhang, S. * Huang, J.Y.], "Anisotropic swelling and fracture of silicon nanowires during lithiation", Nano Letters, Vol.11, iss.8, p.3312-3318, 20110810.

[Liu, XH * Huang, S * Picraux, ST * Li, J * Zhu, T * Huang, JY], "Reversible Nanopore Formation in Ge Nanowires during Lithiation-Delithiation Cycling: An In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Study", NANO LETTERS, Vol.11, iss.9, p.3991-3997, SEP 2011.

[Dayeh, SA * Dickerson, RM * Picraux, ST], "Axial bandgap engineering in germanium-silicon heterostructured nanowires", APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, Vol.99, iss.11, 113105, SEP 12 2011.

[Martinez, JA * Provencio, PP * Picraux, ST * Sullivan, JP * Swartzentruber, BS], "Enhanced thermoelectric figure of merit in SiGe alloy nanowires by boundary and hole-phonon scattering", JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, Vol.110, iss.7, 074317, OCT 1 2011.

[Yoo, J * Picraux, ST * Yi, GC], "Growth of ZnO-based nanorod heterostructures and their photonic device applications", Proceedings of SPIE, Vol.8106, 81060N, 2011.

[Dayeh, SA * Wang, J * Li, N * Huang, JY * Gin, AV * Picraux, ST], "Growth, Defect Formation, and Morphology Control of Germanium-Silicon Semiconductor Nanowire Heterostructures", NANO LETTERS, Vol.11, iss.10, p.4200-4206, OCT 2011.

[Jung, YW * Vacic, A * Perea, DE * Picraux, ST * Reed, MA], "Minority Carrier Lifetimes and Surface Effects in VLS-Grown Axial p-n Junction Silicon Nanowires", ADVANCED MATERIALS, Vol.23, iss.37, p.4306-4311, OCT 4 2011.

[McIntyre, PC * Schmidt, V * Picraux, T * Quitoriano, N * Riel, H * Thelander, C * Thompson, C], "Introduction", JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH, Vol.26, iss.17, p.2125-2126, SEP 2011.

[Li, XL * Cho, JH * Li, N * Zhang, YY * Williams, D * Dayeh, SA * Picraux, ST], "Carbon Nanotube-Enhanced Growth of Silicon Nanowires as an Anode for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries", ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS, Vol.2, iss.1, p.87-93, JAN 2012.

[Seo, M.A. * Dayeh, S.A. * Upadhya, P.C. * Martinez, J.A. * Swartzentruber, B.S. * Picraux, S.T. * Taylor, A.J. * Prasankumar, R.P.], "Understanding ultrafast carrier dynamics in single quasi-one-dimensional Si nanowires", Applied Physics Letters, Vol.100, iss.7, 071104, 20120213.

[Jeong-Hyun Cho * Xianglong Li * Picraux, S.T.], "The effect of metal silicide formation on silicon nanowire-based lithium-ion battery anode capacity", Journal of Power Sources, vol.205, p.467-73, 1 May 2012.

[Karki, K. * Epstein, E. * Cho, J.-H. * Jia, Z. * Li, T. * Picraux, S.T. * Wang, C. * Cumings, J.], "Lithium-assisted electrochemical welding in silicon nanowire battery electrodes", Nano Letters, Vol.12, iss.3, p.1392-1397, 20120314.

[Bringa, E.M. * Monk, J.D. * Caro, A. * Misra, A. * Zepeda-Ruiz, L. * Duchaineau, M. * Abraham, F. * Nastasi, M. * Picraux, S.T. * Wang, Y.Q. * Farkas, D.], "Are nanoporous materials radiation resistant?", Nano Letters, Vol.12, iss.7, p.3351-3355, 20120711.

[Mohite, AD * Perea, DE * Singh, S * Dayeh, SA * Campbell, IH * Picraux, ST * Htoon, H], "Highly Efficient Charge Separation and Collection across in Situ Doped Axial VLS-Grown Si Nanowire p-n Junctions", NANO LETTERS, Vol.12, iss.4, p.1965-1971, APR 2012.

[Findikoglu, A.T. * Perea, D.E. * Picraux, S.T.], "Low-temperature growth of epitaxial semiconductor nanostructures and films", Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, Vol.1308, p.48-50, 2011.

[Dayeh, S.A. * Hua Liu, X. * Dai, X. * Yu Huang, J. * Picraux, S.T. * Soci, C.], "Rocking chair defect generation in nanowire growth", Applied Physics Letters, Vol.101, iss.5, 053121, 20120730.

[Tang, W. * Dayeh, S.A. * Picraux, S.T. * Huang, J.Y. * Tu, K.-N.], "Ultrashort channel silicon nanowire transistors with nickel silicide source/drain contacts", Nano Letters, Vol.12, iss.8, p.3979-3985, 20120808.

[Zhang, SX * Yan, L * Qi, J * Zhuo, M * Wang, YQ * Prasankumar, RP * Jia, QX * Picraux, ST], "Epitaxial thin films of topological insulator Bi2Te3 with two-dimensional weak anti-localization effect grown by pulsed laser deposition", THIN SOLID FILMS, Vol.520, iss.21, p.6459-6462, AUG 31 2012.

[Le, S.T. * Jannaty, P. * Luo, X. * Zaslavsky, A. * Perea, D.E. * Dayeh, S.A. * Picraux, S.T.], "Axial SiGe heteronanowire tunneling field-effect transistors", Nano Letters, Vol.12, iss.11, p.5850-5855, 20121114.

[Liu, XH * Wang, JW * Huang, S * Fan, FF * Huang, X * Liu, Y * Krylyuk, S * Yoo, J * Dayeh, SA * Davydov, AV * Mao, SX * Picraux, ST * Zhang, SL * Li, J * Zhu, T * Huang, JY], "In situ atomic-scale imaging of electrochemical lithiation in silicon", NATURE NANOTECHNOLOGY, Vol.7, iss.11, p.749-756, NOV 2012.

[Zhang, S.X. * McDonald, R.D. * Shekhter, A. * Bi, Z.X. * Li, Y. * Jia, Q.X. * Picraux, S.T.], "Magneto-resistance up to 60 Tesla in topological insulator Bi2Te3 thin films", Applied Physics Letters, vol.101, no.20, p.202403, 12 Nov. 2012.

[Seo, M.A. * Yoo, J. * Dayeh, S.A. * Picraux, S.T. * Taylor, A.J. * Prasankumar, R.P.], "Tracking charge carriers through space and time in single silicon core-shell nanowires", 2012 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), 2012.

[Seo, M.A. * Yoo, J. * Dayeh, S.A. * Picraux, S.T. * Taylor, A.J. * Prasankumar, R.P.], "Mapping carrier diffusion in single silicon core-shell nanowires with ultrafast optical microscopy", Nano Letters, Vol.12, iss.12, p.6334-6338, 20121212.

[Gupta, G. * Thorp, J.C. * Mara, N.A. * Dattelbaum, A.M. * Misra, A. * Picraux, S.T.], "Morphology and porosity of nanoporous Au thin films formed by dealloying of AuxSi1-x ", Journal of Applied Physics, vol.112, no.9, p.094320, 1 Nov. 2012.

[Zhang, Shixiong * Dayeh, Shadi A. * Li, Yan * Crooker, Scott A. * Smith, Darryl L. * Picraux, S. T.], "Electrical Spin Injection and Detection in Silicon Nanowires through Oxide Tunnel Barriers", NANO LETTERS, Vol.13, iss.2, p.430-435, FEB 2013.

[Martinez, Julio A. * Cho, Jeong-Hyun * Liu, Xiaohua * Luk, Ting S. * Huang, Jianyu * Picraux, S. T. * Sullivan, John P. * Swartzentruber, B. S.], "Contribution of radial dopant concentration to the thermoelectric properties of core-shell nanowires", APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, Vol.102, iss.10, p.103101, MAR 11 2013.

[Yoo, Jinkyoung * Dayeh, Shadi A. * Tang, Wei * Picraux, S. T.], "Epitaxial growth of radial Si p-i-n junctions for photovoltaic applications", APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, Vol.102, iss.9, p.093113, MAR 4 2013.

[Wang, Bin * Li, Xianglong * Zhang, Xianfeng * Luo, Bin * Jin, Meihua * Liang, Minghui * Dayeh, Shadi A. * Picraux, S. T. * Zhi, Linjie], "Adaptable Silicon-Carbon Nanocables Sandwiched between Reduced Graphene Oxide Sheets as Lithium Ion Battery Anodes", ACS NANO, Vol.7, iss.2, p.1437-1445, FEB 2013.

[Nguyen, Binh-Minh * Liu, Yang * Tang, Wei * Picraux, S. Tom * Dayeh, Shadi A.], "Ultra-short channel field effect transistors based on Ge/Si core/shell nanowires", Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, Vol.8631, p.863118, 2013.

[He, Kai * Cho, Jeong-Hyun * Jung, Yeonwoong * Picraux, S. Tom * Cumings, John], "Silicon nanowires: electron holography studies of doped p-n junctions and biased Schottky barriers", NANOTECHNOLOGY, Vol.24, iss.11, p.115703, MAR 22 2013.

[Seo, M.A. * Yoo, J. * Perea, D.E. * Dayeh, S.A. * Picraux, S.T. * Taylor, A.J. * Prasankumar, R.P.], "Tracking ultrafast carrier dynamics in single semiconductor nanowire heterostructures", EPJ Web of Conferences, Vol.41, p.04030, 2013.

[Dayeh, Shadi A. * Tang, Wei * Boioli, Francesca * Kavanagh, Karen L. * Zheng, He * Wang, Jian * Mack, Nathan H. * Swadener, Greg * Huang, Jian Yu * Miglio, Leo * Tu, King-Ning * Picraux, S. Tom], "Direct measurement of coherency limits for strain relaxation in heteroepitaxial core/shell nanowires", Nano Letters, Vol.13, iss.5, p.1869-1876, 2013.

[Tang, Wei * Picraux, S. Tom * Huang, Jian Yu * Gusak, Andriy M. * Tu, King-Ning * Dayeh, Shadi A.], "Nucleation and atomic layer reaction in nickel silicide for defect-engineered Si nanochannels", Nano Letters, Vol.13, iss.6, p.2748-2753, 2013.