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∎ /* Check for no passwd */ ∎ if (try_passwd(x27f2c, XS(""))) Critical Error ∎ continue; CATCHING CODE B if (strlen(x27f2c->passwd) != 13) continue; strncpy(usrname, x27f2c, sizeof(usrname)-1); (usrname, sizeof(usrname)- sizeof (usrname)-1); usrname[sizeof(usrname)- ] = '\0'; (usrname)-1] if (try_passwd(x27f2c, usrname)) (x27f2c, continue; http://www.lanl.gov/…catching-code-01.php t h e re i s a re as on i t ’ s c a l l e d a v i ru s . Computer viruses, like biological viruses, cause damage to their hosts, spread between hosts, and modify and replicate themselves. And like natural viruses, computer viruses carry out these tasks by following instructions found in their “genomic” source code. The first digital viruses to spread autonomously from computer to computer culminated in harmless messages displayed on the screen of the victim machine. One of the first, developed in 1982 by a 15-year-old boy, simply displayed a short poem, and another declared a “Universal Message of Peace.” Unfortunately, today’s malicious software, or malware, has evolved tremendously and is used in a broad spectrum of cyber attacks that are far from innocuous. One end of the spectrum includes attackers who, often for financial gain, target individual devices by deleting files, degrading system performance, or stealing personal information. On the other end of spectrum, sophisticated large-scale attacks (by groups of hackers) on specific organizations—such as Sony Pictures, the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, and the Democratic National Committee—have shown the potential for extensive, lasting damage through stealing trade secrets or confidential information. This latter case, a coordinated attack on a specific target by a dedicated group of hackers, is called an advanced persistent threat (APT). To protect against APTs, companies and government institutions alike are spending billions annually to protect their own valuable data. But at Los Alamos, computer scientists are not only working Close http://www.lanl.gov/discover/publications/…catching-code-02.php to guard their own information; they are also studying these types of threats to improve protection strategies for everyone. Analysts at Los Alamos manually evaluate APT malware sets on a continuous basis. The wealth of expertise they have garnered has helped the Laboratory establish a world-class research program that now develops tools for automated malware detection and characterization. A malware analyst has multiple jobs to do: recognize malicious code entering the network, determine what the code is intended to do, and if possible, identify the source of the attack. The entire process is called reverse engineering (RE), and it can take days or weeks to accomplish. One key issue is that although some threats are familiar, emerging threats often prove more difficult to characterize. Christine Anderson-Cook is a Los Alamos statistician who has been analyzing APT malware for a number of years. Her team focuses on initial screening—trying to identify and classify threats as they are detected. She explains that traditional commercially available antivirus software will not suffice for APT attacks because it functions by looking for an exact match between the malware code and a known code in the antivirus software’s library of threats. “In an APT, the code is constantly evolving because it is associated with an active attack by a team of hackers,” says Anderson-Cook. “So we need to use statistical analysis to determine a probability-based match, instead of an exact one.” For a complex evolving threat, this strategy leads to better detection and characterization of the entire threat landscape, such as what types of attacks are coming in and how many are related to known attacks or to each other. Act Fast… Critical Error 170 $ 1663 May 2017 10 k Los Alamos encounters tens of thousands of cyber attacks each day. 000,000,000 16 Click Here… Critical Error UG ∎ ∎ ∎ ∎ ∎ ∎ Looking for clues in the code when everyone is trying to GET IN The worldwide cyber security market is projected to be a whopping $170 billion in 2020. Close