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Research - Combustion


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Reactive flow and combustion modeling of fully miscible species is the area of broadest use of simulation codes from T-3 and possibly from Los Alamos. Currently these are represented by the KIVA family of codes [Amsden, 1993] [Amsden et al, 1989].

The KIVA codes are in worldwide useby industry, academia, and government laboratories. Their popularity as research tools [Amsden et al, 1993], primarily because of the availability of the source code and of thier unique treatment of sprays- now generally considered a worldwide standard.

Although the intended applications are to flow and combustion modeling in spark-ignition and diesel engines and gas turbines (as in Fig. 3.1-1), the extreme versatility and range of features have made KIVA programs attractive to a variety of non-engine applications as well. These range in scale from proposed 500-foot-high convection towers with water sprays that clean and cool the air in polluted urban areas, down to modeling silicon dioxide condensation in high pressure oxidation chambers used in the production of microchip wafers. Other applications have included the analysis of flows in automotive catalytic converters, power plant smokestack cleaning, pyrolytic treatment of biomass, design of fire suppression systems, pulsed detonation propulsion systems, stationary burners, aerosol dispersion, and design of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. A complete history of KIVA as a paradigm of technology transfer from the government laboratories to industry can be found in [Amsden et al, 1993].

The current version of KIVA-3 uses an unstructured mesh of hexahedrons that are groups of logical blocks of mesh and an all-speed ALE formulation from the SALE heritage. Because of the ability to model opening and closing of ports and valves, connectivity of the mesh can change during the simulation. This is a unique feature of the currently active codes in T-3 (also see CAVEAT-GT below). KIVA is also unique in that it contains a Lagrangian particle treatment of liquid spays as originally proposed by Dukowicz [Dukowicz, 1980]. The current spray model includes breakup, collisions and evaporation, coupled with the turbulent gas field. This model is inherently stochastic, in contrast to the deterministic nature of all other T-3 CFD codes, and only produces an average solution for a large number of particles. The transport and chemistry equations can treat an arbitrary number of species and reactions, both kinetic and equilibrium. Mixing-controlled combustion that works in conjunction with the k-e turbulence model and a soot model are provided.

Parallel with the effort to continue the maturation of KIVA-3, future versions of KIVA are being developed. These codes use largely the same numerics as KIVA-3 but address the requirements of parallel computer architectures and requirements of modern mesh generation codes. KIVA-F90 is a complete rewrite of KIVA-II using Fortran 90 and executes on workstations, massively parallel architectures, and supercomputers without modification. KIVA-AC, just now under development, is an unstructured mesh version of KIVA-F90 that will support combinations of tetrahedrons and hexahedrons.

Combustion Projects
All of the filled circles are linkable projects.
All of the empty circles are navigational guides.

  • Gaseous
  • Turbulent
  • Liquid fuels
  • Forest fire modeling
  • Pollution and soot modeling

Questions? Contact us!

This is from "The Legacy and Future of CFD at Los Alamos" (LAUR#LA-UR-1426)(365Kb pdf file)






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