Reactive flow and combustion modeling of fully miscible
species is the area of broadest use of simulation codes from T-3 and possibly
from Los Alamos. Currently these are represented by the KIVA family of
codes [Amsden, 1993] [Amsden
et al, 1989].
The KIVA codes are in worldwide useby industry, academia, and government
laboratories. Their popularity as research tools [Amsden
et al, 1993], primarily because of the availability of the source
code and of thier unique treatment of sprays- now generally considered
a worldwide standard.
Although the intended applications are to flow and combustion modeling
in spark-ignition and diesel engines and gas turbines (as in Fig. 3.1-1),
the extreme versatility and range of features have made KIVA programs
attractive to a variety of non-engine applications as well. These range
in scale from proposed 500-foot-high convection towers with water sprays
that clean and cool the air in polluted urban areas, down to modeling
silicon dioxide condensation in high pressure oxidation chambers used
in the production of microchip wafers. Other applications have included
the analysis of flows in automotive catalytic converters, power plant
smokestack cleaning, pyrolytic treatment of biomass, design of fire suppression
systems, pulsed detonation propulsion systems, stationary burners, aerosol
dispersion, and design of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems.
A complete history of KIVA as a paradigm of technology transfer from the
government laboratories to industry can be found in [Amsden
et al, 1993].
The current version of KIVA-3 uses an unstructured mesh of hexahedrons
that are groups of logical blocks of mesh and an all-speed ALE formulation
from the SALE heritage. Because of the ability to model opening and closing
of ports and valves, connectivity of the mesh can change during the simulation.
This is a unique feature of the currently active codes in T-3 (also see
CAVEAT-GT below). KIVA is also unique in that it contains a Lagrangian
particle treatment of liquid spays as originally proposed by Dukowicz
[Dukowicz, 1980]. The current
spray model includes breakup, collisions and evaporation, coupled with
the turbulent gas field. This model is inherently stochastic, in contrast
to the deterministic nature of all other T-3 CFD codes, and only produces
an average solution for a large number of particles. The transport and
chemistry equations can treat an arbitrary number of species and reactions,
both kinetic and equilibrium. Mixing-controlled combustion that works
in conjunction with the k-e turbulence model and a soot model are provided.
Parallel with the effort to continue the maturation of KIVA-3, future
versions of KIVA are being developed. These codes use largely the same
numerics as KIVA-3 but address the requirements of parallel computer architectures
and requirements of modern mesh generation codes. KIVA-F90 is a complete
rewrite of KIVA-II using Fortran 90 and executes on workstations, massively
parallel architectures, and supercomputers without modification. KIVA-AC,
just now under development, is an unstructured mesh version of KIVA-F90
that will support combinations of tetrahedrons and hexahedrons.
All of the filled circles are linkable projects.
All of the empty circles are navigational guides.
- Liquid fuels
- Forest fire modeling
- Pollution and soot modeling
Questions? Contact us!
This is from "The Legacy
and Future of CFD at Los Alamos" (LAUR#LA-UR-1426)(365Kb pdf
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