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Introduction to the NHMFL Pulsed Field Facility at LANL

Information on the physical set-up of pulsed field measurements

Read about lock-in amplifiers and their role in your measurements

Information about noise and ways to eliminate it from your measurements

How to collect and evaluate your measurement data

Information on optical spectroscopy

Information about time-resolved optics

Information on de Haas van Alphen Effect measurements

Information on Shubinkov de Haas Effect measurements

Information on Absolute Resistivity measurements

Information on Heat Capacity measurements

Information on RF Penetration Depth measurements

Phase Shifts and Overloading


Phase shifts are caused primarily by instrumentation and cable capacitance and inductance. In most cases it is best to adjust phase by maximizing voltage.

One possible way to determine phase is to measure your sample with a low frequency bridge like the LR400 or the LR700 (17 Hz), both are available at NHMFL, and take a resistance reading. The lock-in frequency and phase are set to reproduce this value.


One cause of error and lost data is overloading of the lock-in, or the preceding pre-amplifier.

A lock-in amplifier's ability to handle large signals without overloading and losing data is known as dynamic reserve. For pulsed field experiments a lock-in with high dynamic reserve may be useful. The Stanford SR850 lock-in is one commonly used at NHMFL.

One way to stop overloading from dB/dT pick-up is to decrease the lock-in gain (sensitivity). Note that the dB/dt pick-up comes from an open-loop induced voltage independent of the instrumentation.