The Shubnikov-de Haas
(SdH) effect is a magnetotransport phenomena that occurs in metals in
an intense magnetic field. The SdH effect is similar to the de Haas-van
Alphen effect in that the signature of the effect is a periodic waveform
when plotted as a function of inverse magnetic field (1/H). The "frequency"
of the magnetoresistance oscillations (in inverse field space) indicates
area of the extremal Fermi surface. The area of the Fermi surface is expressed