2. At frequencies above 4 Hz, the 16 August event falls within the earthquake population and is separated from the explosion population. Taking the location and discrimination results together, I conclude that the 16 August event was an earthquake.
3. Given that many small events (mb < 4.0) will be examined under the GNEM R&E program, and therefore will be detected only at regional distances, there is clearly a need for continued regionalization effort to prepare for treaty monitoring.
4. The modern arrays, which will be part of the GNEM R&E IMS, played an important role in detection and location of the 16 August, but the long-established stations (such as KEV) are important for event identification and relative location studies. I suggest accepting the 16 August event as an earthquake. It could then be used to help confirm that the other recent small events from north of NZTS (Figure 7) were also earthquakes.
5. Clearly, a chemical explosion at NZTS in the m 3.7 - 4.2 range would be an immense help to the regionalization effort. However, given the weak Sn produced by explosions in this region, and given that Sn attenuation is greater than Pn attenuation, a calibration explosion should not be much less than mb will be fall below noise levels.