Los Alamos National Laboratory

Los Alamos National Laboratory

Delivering science and technology to protect our nation and promote world stability

Thermoacoustics Textbook

The second edition of Thermoacoustics: A Unifying Perspective for Some Engines and Refrigerators, by Gregory W. Swift, is now available.

This new edition is available from Springer, as a hardcover book and an ebook.  If you are located outside the US, a notice will appear at the top of the page directing you to a version of Springer’s website optimized for your own country. That page will display pricing in your local currency. You can also manually change the country from the drop-down list at the top right of the page.

For students and staff at universities and other institutions with a subscription to Springer’s eBook Package in Physics and Astronomy, you can click on “Access this title on SpringerLink - Click here” to download the eBook for free and/or purchase a low-cost, black-and-white paperback for individual use.

To obtain the computer animations used to illustrate points in the book, for either the first or second edition, download files from Springer or LANL

To fully explore the textbook and examples within it, also download the computer code DeltaEC.

An error in the first edition has been corrected in this second edition. 

Table of contents of Thermoacoustics: A Unifying Perspective for Some Engines and Refrigerators:

Preface --- vii
List of symbols --- xv
Introduction --- 1
   1.1 Themes --- 1
   1.2 Length scales --- 7
   1.3 Overview and examples --- 8 
      1.3.1 Standing-wave heat engine --- 9 
      1.3.2 Standing-wave refrigerator --- 14 
      1.3.3 Orifice pulse-tube refrigerator --- 17 
      1.3.4 Thermoacoustic-Stirling heat engine --- 20 
   1.4 Thermoacoustics and conventional technology --- 24 
   1.5 Outline --- 26 
   1.6 Exercises --- 28 
Background --- 31 
   2.1 Laws of thermodynamics --- 31 
      2.1.1 The first law --- 31 
      2.1.2 The second law --- 35 
   2.2 Laws of fluids --- 39 
      2.2.1 Continuity (mass) --- 40 
      2.2.2 Momentum --- 41 
      2.2.3 Energy --- 43 
      2.2.4 Entropy --- 44 
   2.3 Ideal gases --- 45 
      2.3.1 Thermodynamic properties --- 45 
      2.3.2 Transport properties --- 48 
      2.3.3 Shortcuts --- 49 
      2.3.4 Mixtures --- 50 
   2.4 Some consequences of the laws --- 50 
      2.4.1 Carnot's efficiency --- 50 
      2.4.2 Maxwell relations --- 52 
   2.5 Exercises --- 54 
Simple oscillations --- 59 
   3.1 The harmonic oscillator and complex notation --- 59 
   3.2 Acoustic approximations to the laws of gases --- 65 
   3.3 Some simple oscillations in gases --- 69
      3.3.1 The gas spring --- 69 
      3.3.2 Simple sound waves --- 71 
   3.4 Exercises --- 73 
Waves --- 77 
   4.1 Lossless acoustics and ideal resonators --- 78 
   4.2 Viscous and thermal effects in large channels --- 85 
      4.2.1 Viscous resistance --- 86 
      4.2.2 Thermal-relaxation conductance --- 90 
   4.3 Inviscid boundary-layer thermoacoustics --- 94 
   4.4 General thermoacoustics --- 97 
      4.4.1 The math --- 97 
      4.4.2 The ideas --- 102 
   4.5 Exercises --- 114 
Power --- 117 
   5.1 Acoustic power --- 118 
      5.1.1 Acoustic power dissipation with $dT_m /dx=0$ --- 121 
      5.1.2 Acoustic power with zero viscosity --- 124 
   5.2 Total power --- 130 
      5.2.1 Traveling waves --- 136 
      5.2.2 Standing waves --- 137 
   5.3 Some calculation methods --- 138 
   5.4 Examples --- 143 
   5.5 Exercises --- 146 
Efficiency --- 149 
   6.1 Lost work and entropy generation --- 150 
   6.2 Exergy --- 156 
   6.3 Examples --- 162 
   6.4 Exercises --- 165 
Beyond Rott's thermoacoustics --- 171 
   7.1 Tortuous porous media --- 174 
   7.2 Turbulence --- 177 
      7.2.1 Minor losses --- 183 
   7.3 Entrance effects and joining conditions --- 188 
      7.3.1 Entrance effects --- 189 
      7.3.2 Joining conditions --- 190 
   7.4 Mass streaming --- 197 
      7.4.1 Gedeon streaming (``dc flow'') --- 200 
      7.4.2 Rayleigh streaming --- 204 
      7.4.3 Jet-driven streaming --- 209 
      7.4.4 Streaming within a regenerator or stack --- 211 
      7.4.5 Deliberate streaming --- 211 
   7.5 Harmonics and shocks --- 219 
   7.6 Dimensionless groups --- 222 
      7.6.1 Insight --- 223 
      7.6.2 Empirical correlation --- 225 
      7.6.3 Scale models --- 225 
   7.7 Exercises --- 226 
Hardware --- 231 
   8.1 Prelude: the gas itself --- 231 
   8.2 Stacks and regenerators --- 233 
      8.2.1 Standing wave --- 233 
      8.2.2 Traveling wave --- 238 
   8.3 Heat exchangers --- 240 
      8.3.1 Common arrangements --- 240 
      8.3.2 Thermoacoustic choices --- 242
   8.4 Thermal buffer tubes and pulse tubes --- 245 
   8.5 Resonators --- 246 
      8.5.1 Dissipation --- 246 
      8.5.2 Size, weight, and pressure-vessel safety --- 248 
      8.5.3 Harmonic suppression --- 249 
   8.6 Electroacoustic power transducers --- 250 
   8.7 Exercises --- 255 
Measurements --- 259 
   9.1 Easy measurements --- 259 
      9.1.1 Pressures and frequency --- 260 
      9.1.2 Mean temperature --- 262 
   9.2 Power measurements --- 263 
      9.2.1 Acoustic power --- 263 
      9.2.2 Heat --- 267 
   9.3 Difficult measurements --- 269 
   9.4 Points of view --- 269 
      9.4.1 Natural dependence --- 270 
      9.4.2 Evidence --- 272 
      9.4.3 Performance --- 274 
      9.4.4 A thermoacoustic perspective --- 277 
   9.5 Exercises --- 287 
A: Common pitfalls --- 291 
B: DeltaE files --- 293 
   B.1 Standing-wave engine --- 294 
   B.2 Standing-wave refrigerator --- 296 
   B.3 Orifice pulse-tube refrigerator --- 299 
   B.4 Thermoacoustic-Stirling heat engine --- 302 
Bibliography --- 309 
Author index --- 317 
Subject index --- 321 

Visit Blogger Join Us on Facebook Follow Us on Twitter See our Flickr Photos Watch Our YouTube Videos Find Us on LinkedIn Find Us on iTunesFind Us on GooglePlayFind Us on Instagram