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Richard Stephen Middleton

Richard Middleton

Phone (505) 665-8332


  • Computational Physics and Applied Mathematics
  • Algorithms
  • Applied Math
  • Uncertainty analysis
  • Network modeling
  • Earth and Space Sciences
  • Geoscience
  • Hydrology
  • Plant ecology
  • Geology
  • Remote sensing
  • Climate modeling
  • Ecosystem dynamics
  • Information Science and Technology
  • Visualization
  • Network design
  • Network modeling



  • Lead developer for SimCCS: Scalable Infrastructure Model for CO2 Capture and Storage
  • Computationally-efficient reduced models for CO2 sequestration engineering and economics
  • Integrated wind energy optimization (SimWIND): wind farm deployment, transmission development, and end-user connections
  • Watershed design for dedicated energy crops and biofuels processing


  • 2014 National Climate Assessment: lead author and steering committee member for energy-water-land interactions technical input report
  • Integrated watershed design: hydrology, land use, and energy
  • Critical watersheds: impact of extreme & novel climate and disruptive events on ecohydrology and water supply for the energy-water nexus


  • Open source GIS development
  • Multi-core GIS data modeling


Ph.D. (2006) University of California at Santa Barbara, Geography and Operations Research

M.Sc. (1999) University of Leicester, Geographical Information Science

B.Sc. (1996) Lancaster University, Geography



Middleton, R.S., Carey, J.W., Currier, R.P., Hyman, J.D., Kang, Q., Karra, S., Jiménez-Martínez, J., Porter, M.L., Viswanathan, H.S., (2015) Shale gas and non-aqueous fracturing fluids: Opportunities and challenges for supercritical CO2, Applied Energy 147, 500-509.

Middleton, R.S., Levine, J.S., Bielicki, J.M., Viswanathan, H.S., Carey, J.W., Stauffer, P.H., (2015) Jumpstarting commercial-scale CO2 capture and storage with ethylene production and enhanced oil recovery in the U.S. Gulf, Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, In press.

Dai, Z., Stauffer, P.H., Carey, J.W., Middleton, R.S., Lu, Z., Jacobs, J.F., Hnottavange-Telleen, K., Spangler, L.H. (2014) Pre-site Characterization Risk Analysis for Commercial-Scale Carbon Sequestration, Environmental Science and Technology 1, DOI: 10.1021/es405468p.

Dai, Z., Middleton, R.S., Viswanathan, H., Fessenden-Rahn, J., Bauman, J., Pawar, R., Lee, S.-Y., McPherson, B. (2014) An Integrated framework for optimizing CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery, Environmental Science and Technology Letters 1, 49-54.

Bielicki, J.M., Callas, G., Middleton, R.S., Ha-Duong, M. (2014) National Corridors for Climate Change Mitigation: Managing Industrial CO2 Emissions in France, Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, DOI: 10.1002/ghg.1395.

Middleton, R.S. and Eccles, J.K., (2013). Fracking, renewables, and natural gas power: the complex future of carbon capture and storage, Applied Energy 108, 66-73.

Middleton, R.S. and Brandt, A.R., (2013). Using infrastructure optimization to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from oil sands extraction and processing, Environmental Science and Technology 47, 1735-1744.

Middleton, R.S. (2013). A new optimization approach to energy network modeling: anthropogenic CO2 capture coupled with enhanced oil recovery, International Journal of Energy Research 37, 1794-1810.

Sullivan, E.J., Chu, S., Stauffer, P.H., Middleton, R.S., Pawar, R.J. (2013). A method and cost model for treatment of water extracted during geologic CO2 sequestration, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 12, 372-381.

Middleton, R.S., Kuby, M.J., Wei, R., Keating, G.N., and Pawar, R.J., (2012) A dynamic model for optimally phasing in CCS infrastructure, Environmental Modeling and Software 37, 193–205.

Middleton, R.S., Keating, G.N., Stauffer, P.H., Jordan, A.B., Viswanathan, H.S., Kang, Q., Sullivan, E.J., Chu, S.P., Carey, J.W., Mulkey, M.L., Esposito, R.A., Meckel, T.A. (2012). The cross-scale science of CO2 capture and storage: from pore scale to regional scale, Energy and Environmental Science 5, 7328-7345.

Middleton, R.S., Keating, G.N., Stauffer, P.H., Viswanathan, H.S., and Pawar, R.J. (2012). The effect of geologic reservoir uncertainty on CCS infrastructure, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 8, 132-142.

Phillips, B., and Middleton, R.S. (2012). SimWIND: A Geospatial Infrastructure Model for Optimizing Wind Power Generation and Transmission, Energy Policy 43, 291–302.

Parish, E.S., Hilliard, M.R., Baskaran, L.M., Dale, V.H., Griffiths, N.H., Mulholland, P.J., Sorokine, A., Downing, M.E., Middleton, R.S., and Thomas, N.A. (2012). Multimetric spatial optimization of bioenergy crops across a watershed, Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining 6, 58-72.

Middleton, R.S., Kuby, M.J., and Bielicki, J.M. (2012). Generating candidate networks for optimization: the CO2 capture and storage optimization problem, Computers, Environment, and Urban Systems 36, 18-29.

Stauffer, P.H., Keating, G.N., Middleton, R.S., Viswanathan, H.S., Berchtold, K.A., Singh, R.P., Mancino, A., Pawar, R.J., (2011) Greening coal: breakthroughs and challenges of CCS. Environmental Science and Technology 45, 8597-8604.

Kuby, M., Bielicki, J.M., and Middleton, R.S. (2011). Optimal spatial deployment of carbon dioxide capture and storage given a price on carbon dioxide, International Regional Science Review 34, 285-305.

Middleton, R.S., Bielicki, J.M., Keating, G.N., and Pawar, R.J. (2011). Jumpstarting CCS using refinery CO2 for enhanced oil recovery, Energy Procedia 4, 2185-2191.

Keating, G.N., Middleton, R.S., Stauffer, P.H., and Pawar, R.J. (2011). How storage uncertainty will drive CCS infrastructure, Energy Procedia 4, 2393-2400.

Kuby, M.J., Middleton, R.S., and Bielicki, J.M. (2011). Analysis of cost savings from networking pipelines in CCS infrastructure systems, Energy Procedia 4, 2808-2815.

Keating, G.N., Middleton, R.S., Stauffer, P.H., Viswanathan, H.S., Letellier, B.C., Pasqualini, D., Pawar, R.J., and Wolfsberg, A.V. (2011). Meso-scale carbon sequestration site screening and CCS infrastructure analysis, Environmental Science and Technology 45, 215-222.

Duque, J.C., Church, R.L., and Middleton, R.S. (2011). The p-regions problem, Geographical Analysis 43, 104-126.

Middleton, R.S. and Bielicki, J.M. (2009). A scalable infrastructure model for carbon capture and storage: SimCCS, Energy Policy 37, 1052-1060.

Middleton, R.S. and Bielicki, J.M. (2009). A comprehensive carbon capture and storage infrastructure model, Energy Procedia 1, 1691-1698.

Church, R.L., Scaparra, M.P., and Middleton, R.S. (2004). Identifying critical infrastructure: the median and covering facility interdiction problems, Annals of the Association of American Geographers 94, 491-502.

Fabrikant, S.I., Montello, D.R., Ruocco, M., and Middleton, R.S. (2004). The distance-similarity metaphor in network-display spatializations, Cartography and Geographic Information Science 31, 237-252.

Montello, D.R., Fabrikant, S.I., Ruocco, M., and Middleton, R.S. (2003). Testing the first law of cognitive geography on point-display spatializations, Spatial Information Theory. Foundations of Geographic Information Science 2825, 316-331.