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Richard Marc Kippen

Marc Kippen

Email
Phone (505) 667-3125

Capabilities

  • Computer and Computational Sciences
  • Space-based computing
  • Earth and Space Sciences
  • Space-borne instrumentation
  • Gamma ray detection
  • Magnetosphere
  • High-energy astrophysics
  • Remote sensing
  • Image analysis
  • Transient signal recognition
  • Sensor technology
  • Field studies and process experiments
  • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
  • Nonproliferation
  • Radiation transport code development and applications
  • Nuclear and Particle Physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology
  • Astrophysics
  • Detector expertise in nuclear threat reduction
  • Gamma ray bursts (GRB)
  • Soft gamma-ray repeaters
  • X-ray bursts
  • Particle astrophysics
  • Science of Signatures - Remote and Standoff Sensing
  • Nuclear radiation sensing and sensors
  • Ground-based sensing and sensors
  • Space-based sensing and sensors
  • Gamma-rays
  • Neutrons
  • X-rays
  • Energetic particles
  • Photon
  • Electromagnetics
  • Integration of sensors
  • Remote sensing
  • Image analysis
  • Transient signal recognition,
  • Gamma ray bursts (GRB)
  • Space Situational Awareness
  • Space-based EMP detection
  • SensorNexus: Specialty Applications
  • Optimized Sensing Networking Design
  • Earth and Space Sciences
  • Inverse modeling

Expertise

Over 20 years experience in leadership, technical management, and execution related to design, development, implementation, operation, and use of space-based instrumentation systems, including:

  • Leadership in space-oriented R&D, production, and operations; program & project development, management, and execution; space instrument conceptualization & realization.
  • Development, testing, implementation and management of energetic radiation and particle detector technologies and instruments for applications in national security and basic science.
  • Development and implementation of instrument performance simulation and modeling systems based on Monte Carlo particle transport and empirical modeling techniques.
  • Analysis and interpretation of data from X-ray, gamma-ray, and energetic particle instruments, including imaging, spatial, and spectral analyses of persistent and transient phenomena.
  • Research in high-energy astrophysics, including data analysis, data interpretation, near real-time analysis systems, and multi-wavelength observation coordination.

Primary scientific interests include space systems architectures, imaging spectroscopic X-ray/gamma-ray telescopes/instrumentation, cosmic gamma-ray bursts, cosmic X-ray transients, astrophysical nuclear decay emission, and terrestrial lightning-induced gamma-ray flashes.

Published more than 200 articles in refereed journals and conference proceedings.

Major Programs and Projects:

  • NNSA Nuclear Detonation Detection (NDD) Program (Program Manager), 2012–present
  • NNSA GPS X-ray and Particle Sensing (XAPS) Project (Project Leader), 2002–2012
  • LANL Space Science & Applications Group Leadership Team (Member), 2005–2012
  • USAF GPS Radiation Environment Analysis (Project Leader), 2009–2011
  • LANL Modeling for Environmental Monitoring of Space Orbits (Project Leader), 2009–2010
  • NASA Development of an Advanced Scintillator Compton Telescope (Project Leader), 2008–2011
  • NASA Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) (Co-Investigator), 2000–present
  • NASA Advanced Compton Telescope Mission Concept Studies (Co-Investigator), 2000–2010
  • NASA Compton Observatory BATSE Instrument Team (Member), 1996–2002
  • NASA Compton Observatory COMPTEL Instrument Team (Member), 1988–2002

 

Education

University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire

Ph.D., Physics, May, 1995
M.S., Physics, May, 1991
B.S., with Honors, Physics, May, 1988
 
Los Alamos National Laboratory, Management Institute (November, 2006)
 
 

LANL Positions

Program Manager, Intelligence & Space Research Division (ISR-DO),  2012–present

Project Leader, Space Science & Applications Group (ISR-1),  2005–2012

 

Staff Scientist, Space Science & Applications Group (ISR-1), 2003–2005

Staff Scientist, Space Space & Remote Sensing Sciences Group (NIS-2), 2003–2005

 
 
 
 
 

Professional Societies

American Astronomical Society and High-Energy Astrophysics Div. (Since 1990)

American Physical Society and Div. of Astronomy (Since 1987)

Sigma Xi Scientific Research Society (Since 1996)

SPIE, The International Society for Optics & Photonics (Since 1996)

Associate of The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR; Since 1994)

 

 

Awards

NASA Group Achievement Award for Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor Team (April, 2008)

Sigma Xi Outstanding Dissertation Award (May, 1996)

 

Patents

Hynes, M. V., et al. 2011. “Multimodal Radiation Imager.” U.S. Patent No. US 7,863,567 B1 (Jan. 4, 2011).

 

Publications

[1]  Morley, S., et al., 2017. “Energetic Particle Data from the Global Positioning System Constellation.” Space Weather 15, 283–289.

[2]  Abbott, B. P., et al., 2016. “Localization and broadband follow-up of the gravitational-wave transient GW150914.” Astrophys. J. Lett. 826, L13.

[3]  Abbott, B. P., et al., 2016. “Supplement: Localization and broadband follow-up of the gravitational-wave transient GW150914.” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 225, 8.

[4]  Connaughton, V., et al., 2016. “Fermi GBM Observations of LIGO Gravitational Wave event GW150914.” Astrophys. J. 826, L6.

[5]  Bhat, N., et al., 2016. “The 3rd Fermi GBM Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog: The First Six Years.” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 223 (2), 28.

[6]  Bloser, P. F., et al., 2015. “A soft gamma-ray concentrator using thin-film multilayer structures.” Proc. SPIE 9603, 96031E-1.

[7]  Connaughton, V., et al. 2015. “Localization of Gamma-Ray Bursts Using the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor.” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 216 (2), 32.

[8]  McConnell, M. L., et al., 2014. “POET: a SMEX mission for gamma ray burst polarimetry.” Proc. SPIE 9144, 91441I-1.

[9]  Bloser, P. F., et al., 2014. “A high-energy Compton polarimeter for the POET SMEX mission.” Proc. SPIE 9144, 91441I-1.

[10]  Foley, S., et al. 2014. “Pulse properties of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes detected by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor.” J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys. 119(7), 5931.

[11]  Preece, R., et al. 2014. “The First Pulse of the Extremely Bright GRB 130427A: A Test Lab for Synchrotron Shocks.” Science 343, 51.

[12]  Ackermann, M., et al. 2014. “Fermi-LAT observations of GRB 130427A.” Science 343, 42.

[13]  Ackermann, M., et al. 2013. “The First Fermi-LAT Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog.” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 209, 11.

[14]  Tierney, D., et al. 2013. “Fluence Distribution of Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes Observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor.” J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys. 118, 6644.

[15]  Pal’shin, V. D., et al. 2013. “Interplanetary Network Localizations of Konus Short Gamma-ray Bursts.” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 207, 38.

[16]  Briggs, M. S., et al. 2013. “Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes in the Fermi Era: Improved Observations and Analysis Methods.” J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys. 118, 3805.

[17]  Ackermann, M., et al. 2013. “Multiwavelength Observations of GRB 110731A: GeV Emission from Onset to Afterglow.” Astrophys. J. 763, 71.

[18]  Julien, M., et al. 2012. “Balloon Flight Results of a FAst Compton TELescope (FACTEL).” IEEE Nucl. Sci. Symp. Conf. Record N36-3, 1893.

[19]  Axelsson, M., et al. 2012. “GRB110721A: An Extreme Peak Energy and Signatures of the Photosphere.” Astrophys. J. 757L, 31.

[20]  Ackermann, M., et al. 2012. “Constraining the High-energy Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts with Fermi.” Astrophys. J. 754, 121.

[21]  Wilson-Hodge, C. A., et al., 2012. “Three years of Fermi GBM Earth Occultation Monitoring: Observations of Hard X-ray/Soft Gamma-Ray Sources.” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 201, 33.

[22]  Messenger, S. R., et al., 2012. “Correlation of Telemetered Solar Array Data With Particle Detector Data On GPS Spacecraft.” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 58(6), 3118.

[23]  Goldstein, A., et al. 2012. “The Fermi GBM Gamma-ray Burst Spectral Catalog: The First Two Years.” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 199, 19.

[24]  Paciesas, W. S., et al. 2012. “The Fermi GBM Gamma-ray Burst Catalog: The First Two Years.” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 199, 18.

[25]  Ackermann, M., et al. 2012. “Fermi Detection of γ-Ray Emission from the M2 Soft X-Ray Flare on 2010 June 12.” Astrophys. J. 745, 144.

[26]  Bhat, P. N., et al. 2012. “Temporal Deconvolution Study of Long 1 and Short Gamma-Ray Burst Lightcurves.” Astrophys. J. 744, 141.

[27]  Terry, J. R., et al. 2011. “Evaluation of COTS silicon carbide photodiodes for a radiation-hard, low-energy x-ray spectrometer.” IEEE Nucl. Sci. Symp. Conf. Record NP1.M-236, 485.

[28]  Burgess, J. M., et al. 2011. “Constraints on the Synchrotron Shock Model for the Fermi GRB 090820A Observed by Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor.” Astrophys. J. 741, 24.

[29]  Zoglauer, A., et al. 2011. “Design, implementation, and optimization of MEGAlib's image reconstruction tool Mimrec.” Nucl. Inst. Meth. A 652, 568.

[30]  Gruber, D., et al. 2011. “Gamma-ray and optical observations of the ultra-long GRB 091024.” Astron. Astrophys. 528, 15.

[31]  Gruber, D., et al. 2011. “Rest-frame properties of 32 gamma-ray bursts observed by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor.” Astron. Astrophys. 531, 20.

[32]  Gruber, D., et al. 2011. “Quasi-periodic Pulsations in Solar Flares: New Clues from the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor.” Astron. Astrophys. 533, 61.

[33]  Hurley, K., et al. 2011. “The Interplanetary Network Supplement to the Burst and Transient Source Experiment 5B Catalog of Cosmic Gamma-Ray Bursts.” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 196, 1.

[34]  Fishman, G. J., et al. 2011. “Temporal properties of the terrestrial gamma‐ray flashes from the Gamma‐Ray Burst Monitor on the Fermi Observatory.” J. Geophys. Res. 116, A07304.

[35]  Wilson-Hodge, C. A., et al. 2011. “When a Standard Candle Flickers.” Astrophys. J. Lett. 727, 40.

[36]  Wilson-Hodge, C. A., et al. 2011. “When a Standard Candle Flickers.” In Proceedings of the,8th INTEGRAL Workshop PoS (INTEGRAL 2010), 031.

[37]  Wilson-Hodge, C. A., et al. 2011. “Fermi GBM Observations of Terrestrial Gamma Flashes.” Il Nuovo Cimento C, 34(3), 285.

[38]  Bissaldi, E., et al. 2011. “First–year Results of Broadband Spectroscopy of the Brightest Fermi–GBM Gamma–Ray Bursts.” Astrophys. J. 733, 97.

[39]  Gruber, D., et al. 2011. “Fermi/GBM observations of the ultra-long GRB 091024. A burst with an optical flash.” Astron. Astrophys. 528, 15.

[40]  Ackermann, M., et al. 2011. “Detection of a Spectral Break in the Extra Hard Component of GRB 090926A.” Astrophys. J. 729, 114.

[41]  Case, G. L., et al. 2011. “First Results from Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor Earth Occultation Monitoring: Observations of Soft Gamma-ray Sources Above 100 keV.” Astrophys. J. 729, 105.

[42]  Briggs, M. S., et al. 2011. “Electron-Positron Beams from Terrestrial Lightning Observed with Fermi GBM.” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L02808.

[43]  Hynes, M. V., et al. 2011. “Multimodal Radiation Imager.” U.S. Patent No. US 7,863,567 B1 (Jan. 4, 2011).

[44]  Guiriec, S., et al. 2011. “Detection of a thermal spectral component in the prompt emission of GRB 100724B.” Astrophys. J. Lett. 727, L33.

[45]  Bhat, P. N., et al. 2011. “GBM Long and Short GRB Lightcurve Decomposition Analysis.” In AIP Conf. Proc. 1358, Gamma-ray Bursts 2010, eds. J. E. McEnery, J. L. Racusin, & N. Gehrels (New York: AIP), p. 9.

[46]  Connaughton, V., et al. 2010. “Associations between Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor terrestrial gamma ray flashes and sferics from the World Wide Lightning Location Network.” J. Geophys. Res. 115, A12307.

[47]  Briggs, M. S., et al. 2010. “First results on terrestrial gamma ray flashes from the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor.” J. Geophys. Res. 115, 14.

[48]  Bloser, P. F., et al. 2010. “A fast scintillator Compton telescope for medium-energy gamma-ray astronomy.” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773222.

[49]  Guiriec, S., et al. 2010. “Time-Resolved Spectroscopy of the 3 Brightest and Hardest Short Gamma-Ray Bursts Observed with the FGST Gamma-ray Burst Monitor.” Astrophys. J. 725, 225.

[50]  Ackermann, M., et al. 2010. “Fermi Observations of High-energy Gamma-ray emission from GRB 090217A.” Astrophys. J. 717, L127.

[51]  Ackermann, M., et al. 2010. “Fermi Observations of GRB 090510: A Short–Hard Gamma-ray Burst with an Additional, Hard Power-law Component from 10 keV TO GeV Energies.” Astrophys. J. 716, 1178.

[52]  Abdo, A. A., et al. 2010. “Fermi Detection of Delayed GeV Emission from the Short Gamma-Ray Burst 081024B.” Astrophys. J. 712, 558.

[53]  De Pasquale, M., et al. 2010. “Swift and Fermi Observations of the Early Afterglow of the Short Gamma-ray Burst 090510.” Astrophys. J. 709, L146.

[54]  Abdo, A. A., et al. 2009. “Fermi Observations of GRB 090902B: A Distinct Spectral Component in the Prompt and Delayed Emission.” Astrophys. J. 706, L138.

[55]  Abdo, A. A., et al. 2009. “A limit on the variation of speed of light arising from quantum gravity effects.” Nature 462, 331.

[56]  Schultz, L. A., et al. 2009. “Hybrid Coded Aperture and Compton Imaging using an Active Mask.” Nucl. Inst. Meth. A 608, 267.

[57]  Meegan, C. A., et al. 2009. “The Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor.” Astrophys. J. 702, 791.

[58]  Band, D. L., et al. 2009. “Prospects for GRB science with the Fermi Large Area Telescope.” Astrophys. J. 701, 1673.

[59]  Bloser, P. F., et al. 2009. “A new, low-background Compton telescope using LaBr3 scintillator.” Proc. SPIE 7435, 74350H.

[60]  Meegan, C. A., et al. 2009. “On-Orbit Performance of the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor.” In AIP Conf. Proc. 1133, Gamma-ray Bursts: 6th Huntsville Symposium, eds. C. Meegan, N. Gehrels, & C. Kouveliotou (New York: AIP), p. 7.

[61]  Bhat, P. N., et al. 2009. “The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor Instrument.” In AIP Conf. Proc. 1133, Gamma-ray Bursts: 6th Huntsville Symposium, eds. C. Meegan, N. Gehrels, & C. Kouveliotou (New York: AIP), p. 34.

[62]  Bissaldi, E., et al. 2009. “Fermi GBM: Main detector-level calibration results.” In AIP Conf. Proc. 1133, Gamma-ray Bursts: 6th Huntsville Symposium, eds. C. Meegan, N. Gehrels, & C. Kouveliotou (New York: AIP), p. 37.

[63]  Briggs, M. S., et al. 2009. “The Accuracy of GBM GRB Locations.” In AIP Conf. Proc. 1133, Gamma-ray Bursts: 6th Huntsville Symposium, eds. C. Meegan, N. Gehrels, & C. Kouveliotou (New York: AIP), p. 40.

[64]  Bissaldi, E., et al. 2009. “Ground-based calibration and characterization of the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor Detectors.” Exp. Astron. 24, 47.

[65]  Abdo, A. A., et al. 2009. “Fermi observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from GRB 080916C.” Science 323, 1688.

[66]  Piro, L., et al. 2009. “EDGE: Explorer of Diffuse Emission and Gamma-ray Burst Explosions.” Experimental Astronomy 23, 67.

[67]  Hoover, A. S., et al. 2008. “GLAST Burst Monitor Instrument Simulation and Modeling.” In AIP Conf. Proc. 1000, Gamma-ray Bursts 2007: Proceedings of the Santa Fe Conference, eds. M. Galassi, D. Palmer, & E. Fenimore (New York: AIP), p. 565.

[68]  Meegan, C. A., et al. 2008. “Expected Performance of the GLAST Burst Monitor.” In AIP Conf. Proc. 1000, Gamma-ray Bursts 2007: Proceedings of the Santa Fe Conference, eds. M. Galassi, D. Palmer, & E. Fenimore (New York: AIP), p. 573.

[69]  den Herder, J. W., et al. 2007. “EDGE: Explorer of Diffuse Emission and Gamma-ray Burst Explosions.” Proc. SPIE 6688-4, 668805.

[70]  Wunderer, C. B., et al. 2007. “The Advanced Compton Telescope Mission.” In ESA SP-622, Proc. 6th INTEGRAL Workshop, The Obscured Universe, eds. S. Grebenev, R. Sunyaev, & C. Winkler (Noordwijk: ESA Publication Division, ISBN 92-9291-933-2), p. 649.

[71]  Weidnespointner, G., et al. 2007. “MGGPOD: A Monte Carlo Suite for Gamma Ray Astronomy -- Version 1.1.” In ESA SP-622, Proc. 6th INTEGRAL Workshop, The Obscured Universe, eds. S. Grebenev, R. Sunyaev, & C. Winkler (Noordwijk: ESA Publication Division, ISBN 92-9291-933-2), p. 637.

[72]  Steinle, H., et al. 2007. “Understanding The GLAST Burst Monitor Detector Calibration: A Detailed Simulation Of The Calibration Including The Environment.” In AIP Conf. Proc. 921, The First GLAST Symposium, eds. S. Ritz, P. Michelson, & C. Meegan (New York: AIP), p. 572.

[73]  Briggs, M. S., et al. 2007. “GLAST Burst Monitor On-Board Triggering, Locations and Event Classification.” In AIP Conf. Proc. 921, The First GLAST Symposium, eds. S. Ritz, P. Michelson, & C. Meegan (New York: AIP), p. 450.

[74]  Case, G., et al. 2007. “Monitoring the Low-Energy Gamma-Ray Sky Using Earth Occultation with GLAST GBM.” In AIP Conf. Proc. 921, The First GLAST Symposium, eds. S. Ritz, P. Michelson, & C. Meegan (New York: AIP), p. 538.

[75]  Kippen, R. M., et al. 2007. “Instrument Response Modeling and Simulation for the GLAST Burst Monitor.” In AIP Conf. Proc. 921, The First GLAST Symposium, eds. S. Ritz, P. Michelson, & C. Meegan (New York: AIP), p. 590.

[76]  Wallace, M. S., et al. 2007. “Full Spacecraft Source Modeling and Validation for the GLAST Burst Monitor.” In AIP Conf. Proc. 921, The First GLAST Symposium, eds. S. Ritz, P. Michelson, & C. Meegan (New York: AIP), p. 580.

[77]  Hoover, A. S., et al. 2007. “Validation of the GLAST Burst Monitor Instrument Response Simulation Software.” In AIP Conf. Proc. 921, The First GLAST Symposium, eds. S. Ritz, P. Michelson, & C. Meegan (New York: AIP), p. 552.

[78]  Meegan, C. A., et al. 2007. “The GLAST Burst Monitor.” In AIP Conf. Proc. 921, The First GLAST Symposium, eds. S. Ritz, P. Michelson, & C. Meegan (New York: AIP), p. 13.

[79]  Bhat, N., et al. 2007. “GLAST Burst Monitor Signal Processing System.” In AIP Conf. Proc. 921, The First GLAST Symposium, eds. S. Ritz, P. Michelson, & C. Meegan (New York: AIP), p. 524.

[80]  Von Keinlin, A., et al. 2007. “Calibration of the GLAST Burst Monitor detectors.” In AIP Conf. Proc. 921, The First GLAST Symposium, eds. S. Ritz, P. Michelson, & C. Meegan (New York: AIP), p. 578.

[81]  Lichti, G. G., et al. 2007. “Current Status of the GBM Project.” In AIP Conf. Proc. 906, Gamma-ray Bursts: Prospects for GLAST, eds. M. Axelsson & F. Ryde (New York: AIP), p. 119.

[82]  Steinle, H., et al. 2006. “Measurements of Gamma-ray Bursts with GLAST.” Chin. J. Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 1 6, 365.

[83]  Bloser, P., et al. 2006. “The MEGA Project for Medium Energy Gamma-ray Astronomy.” Chin. J. Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 1 6, 388.

[84]  Wunderer, C. B., et al. 2006. “The ACT Vision Mission Study Simulation Effort.” New Astron. Rev. 50, 608.

[85]  McConnell, M. L., et al. 2006. “The CASTER Black Hole Finder Probe.” New Astron. Rev. 50, 633.

[86]  Boggs, S. E., et al. 2006. “The Advanced Compton Telescope.” New Astron. Rev. 50, 604.

[87]  Hoover, A. S., et al. 2006. “Gamma-ray Imaging with a Si/CsI(Tl) Compton Detector.” Appl. Radiat. Iso. 64, 1648.

[88]  Boggs, S. E., et al. 2006. “The Advanced Compton Telescope.” Proc. SPIE 6266, 24.

[89]  McConnell, M. L., et al. 2006. “The CASTER Black Hole Finder Probe.” In AIP Conf. Proc. 836, Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Swift Era, Sixteenth Maryland Astrophysics Conference, eds. S. S. Holt, N. Gehrels, & J. A. Nousek (New York: AIP), p. 696.

[90]  Novikova, E. I., et al. 2005. “Simulations of a Si-based Advanced Compton Telescope.” IEEE Nucl. Sci. Symp. Conf. Record 2, 985.

[91]  Cherry, M. L., et al. 2005. “A Scintillator-Based Hard X-Ray Imaging Telescope – CASTER.” In Proc. of the 29th International Cosmic Ray Conf., 5 (OG 2.7), 407.

[92]  Hoover, A. S., et al. 2005. “The LANL Prototype Compton Gamma-Ray Imager: Design and Image Reconstruction Techniques.” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 52 (6), 3047.

[93]  Hoover, A. S., Kippen, R. M., & McConnell, M. L. 2005. “The MeV Spectra of Gamma-Ray Bursts Measured with COMPTEL.” Il Nuovo Cimento C 28 (4–5), 825.

[94]  Hoover, A. S., et al. 2005. “The GLAST Burst Monitor Instrument Response Simulation System.” Il Nuovo Cimento C 28 (4–5), 797.

[95]  Hurley, K., et al. 2005. “The Interplanetary Network Supplements to the BATSE 5B and Untriggered Burst Catalogs.” Il Nuovo Cimento C 28 (3), 299.

[96]  Palmer, D. M., et al. 2005. “A Giant Gamma-ray Flare from the Magnetar SGR 1806–20.” Nature 434, 1107.

[97]  McConnell, M. L., et al. 2005. “CASTER - a concept for a Black Hole Finder Probe based on the use of new scintillator technologies.” Proc. SPIE 5898, 1.

[98]  Bloser, P. F., et al. 2005. “MEGA: A Medium-Energy Gamma-ray Astronomy Mission Concept.” Proc. SPIE 5898, 34.

[99]  Moran, L., et al. 2005. “INTEGRAL and XMM-Newton Observations of GRB 040106.” Astron. Astrophys. 432, 467.

[100]  Hoover, A. S., et al. 2004. “The LANL Prototype Compton Gamma-Ray Imager: Design and Image Reconstruction Techniques.” IEEE Nucl. Sci. Symp. Conf. Record 3, 1630.

[101]  Tournear, D., Epstein, R., & Kippen, R. M. 2004. “Dynamic Gamma-Ray Channeling in Layered Structures.” IEEE Nucl. Sci. Symp. Conf. Record 7, 4282.

[102]   Paciesas, W. S., et al. 2004. “CASTER - A scintillator-based Black Hole Finder Probe.” IEEE Nucl. Sci. Symp. Conf. Record 1, 417.

[103]  Hoover, A. S., et al. 2004. “A Compton Imaging Device for Radioactive Material Detection.” Proc. SPIE 5540, 124.

[104]  Moran, L., et al. 2004. “Preliminary INTEGRAL Analysis of GRB 040106.” In ESA Conf. Proc. SP-552, The INTEGRAL Universe, eds. V. Schönfelder, G. Lichti & C. Winkler (Noordwijk: ESA), p. 653.

[105]  von Kienlin, A., et al. 2004. “The GLAST Burst Monitor.” Proc. SPIE 5488, 763.

[106]  McConnell, M. L., et al. 2004. “CASTER: A Scintillator-Based Black Hole Finder Probe.” Proc. SPIE 5488, 944.

[107]  Ryan, J. M., et al. 2004. “MEGA: The Next Generation Medium Energy Gamma-ray Telescope.” Proc. SPIE 5488, 977.

[108]  Tuszewski, M., Cayton, T. E., Ingraham, J. C., & Kippen, R. M. 2004. “Bremsstrahlung Effects in Energetic Particle Detectors.” Space Weather 2, S10S01.

[109]  In ‘t Zand, J., et al. 2004. “Long and Faint GRBs in Archival BeppoSAX-WFC Data.” In ASP Conf. Proc. 312, Third Rome Workshop on Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Afterglow Era, eds. M. Feroci, F. Frontera, N. Masetti & L. Piro (New York: ASP), p. 18.

[110]  Reichart, D.E., et al. 2004. “Application of the Variability–Luminosity Indicator to X-Ray Flashes.” In ASP Conf. Proc. 312, Third Rome Workshop on Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Afterglow Era, eds. M. Feroci, F. Frontera, N. Masetti & L. Piro (New York: ASP), p. 126.

[111]  Cohen-Tanugi, J., et al. 2004. “Trigger and Alerts with the GLAST.” In ASP Conf. Proc. 312, Third Rome Workshop on Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Afterglow Era, eds. M. Feroci, F. Frontera, N. Masetti & L. Piro (New York: ASP), p. 520.

[112]  Kippen, R. M., et al. 2004. “Comparing Prompt Emission from X-ray Flashes and Gamma-ray Bursts.” In AIP Conf. Proc. 727, Gamma-Ray Bursts: 30 Years of Discovery, eds. E. E. Fenimore & M. Galassi (New York: AIP), p. 119.

[113]  Moran, L., et al. 2004. “INTEGRAL Spectrometer Analysis of GRB 030227 and GRB 030131.” In AIP Conf. Proc. 727, Gamma-Ray Bursts: 30 Years of Discovery, eds. E. E. Fenimore & M. Galassi (New York: AIP), p. 225.

[114]  Bhat, N., et al. 2004. “GLAST Burst Monitor.” In AIP Conf. Proc. 727, Gamma-Ray Bursts: 30 Years of Discovery, eds. E. E. Fenimore & M. Galassi (New York: AIP), p. 684.

[115]  Band, D., et al. 2004. “GLAST’s GBM Burst Trigger.” In AIP Conf. Proc. 727, Gamma-Ray Bursts: 30 Years of Discovery, eds. E. E. Fenimore & M. Galassi (New York: AIP), p. 688.

[116]  Lichti, G. G., et al. 2004. “Measurements of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) with GLAST.” Baltic Astronomy 13, 311.

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