Contour Method:


Residual Stress Conferences 
click icon to download pdf file of preprint if available. Linked titles go to DOI or other official source. Where to start if you want to learn the contour method? I recommend four articles to start:
Los Alamos Journal Articles (preprints) (back to top)Prime, M. B., 2017, "Amplified effect of mild plastic anisotropy on residual stress and strain anisotropy," Int. J. of Solids and Structures, 118–119, pp. 7077. Muránsky, O., Hamelin, C. J., Hosseinzadeh, F., and Prime, M. B., 2016, "Mitigating cuttinginduced plasticity in the contour method. Part 2: Numerical analysis," Int. J. of Solids and Structures, 94–95, pp. 254262. Olson, M. D., DeWald, A. T., Prime, M. B., and Hill, M. R., 2015, "Estimation of Uncertainty for Contour Method Residual Stress Measurements," Experimental Mechanics, 55(3), 577585. DOI: 10.1007/s1134001499712. Prime, M. B., DeWald, A. T., Hill, M. R., Clausen, B., and Tran, M., 2014, "Forensic Determination of Residual Stresses and K_{I} from Fracture Surface Mismatch," Engineering Fracture Mechanics., Vol 116, pp. 158171. DOI: 10.1016/j.engfracmech.2013.12.008. preprint (pdf). Kerr, M., Prime, M. B., Swenson, H., Buechler, M. A., Steinzig, M., Clausen, B., and Sisneros, T., 2013, "Residual Stress Characterization in a Dissimilar Metal Weld Nuclear Reactor Piping System Mock Up," Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 135(4), pp. 041205041205. Pagliaro, P., Prime, M. B., Robinson, J. S., Clausen, B., Swenson, H., Steinzig, M., and Zuccarello, B., 2011, "Measuring Inaccessible Residual Stresses Using Multiple Methods and Superposition," Experimental Mechanics, 51 (7):11231134, doi:10.1007/s1134001094245. (LAUR1002450) Presents the Surface Superposition Contour Method: measures multiple stress components on the cut plane by using xray diffraction or hole drilling after contour and then superimposing results. Brown DW, Holden TM, Clausen B, Prime MB, Sisneros TA, Swenson H, Vaja J, 2011, "Critical Comparison of Two Independent Measurements of Residual Stress in an ElectronBeam Welded Uranium Cylinder: Neutron Diffraction and the Contour Method," Acta Materialia 59 (3):864873. doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2010.09.022. (LAUR1002380) A challenging measurement of hoop stresses in a girth welded cylinder. A new twostep process was used. Pagliaro, P., Prime, M. B., Swenson, H., and Zuccarello, B., "Measuring Multiple ResidualStress Components Using the Contour Method and Multiple Cuts," Experimental Mechanics, 50(2), pp. 187194, 2010. (LAUR0901120) Pagliaro, P., Prime, M. B., Clausen, B., Lovato, M. L., and Zuccarello, B., "Known Residual Stress Specimens Using Opposed Indentation," J. of Engineering Materials and Technology, 131, 031002, 2009. (LAUR0804000). A good validation against neutron diffraction and comparison with FEM. Also a good demonstration of repeatability and how to correct for cutting problems using a test cut. (LAUR0004000) R.S. Lillard, D.G. Kolman, M.A. Hill, M.B. Prime, D.K. Veirs, L.A. Worl, and P. Zapp, “Assessment of CorrosionBased Failure in Stainless Steel Containers Used for the LongTerm Storage of PlutoniumBased Salts,” Corrosion 65(3), 175186, 2009. Figure 12 shows contour results on a challenging application, a thin waste storage canister. Part of a comprehensive study by Scot Lillard on pitting corrosion and environmentally induced cracking. (LAUR078226) W. Woo, H. Choo, M. B. Prime, Z. Feng, and B. Clausen, “Microstructure, texture and residual stress in a frictionstirprocessed AZ31B magnesium alloy,” Acta Materialia, 56(8), 17011711, 2008. (LAUR080012) Prime, M. B., GnäupelHerold, T., Baumann, J. A., Lederich, R. J., Bowden, D. M., Sebring, R.J., "Residual Stress Measurements in a Thick, Dissimilar Aluminum Alloy Friction Stir Weld,” Acta Materialia, 54(15), 40134021, 2006. (LAUR060512) See page on friction stir weld. Rangaswamy, P., Griffith, M. L., Prime, M. B., Holden, T. M., Rogge, R. B., Edwards, J. M., and Sebring, R. J., "Residual Stresses in Lens (R) Components Using Neutron Diffraction and Contour Method," Materials Science and Engineering A, 399(12), pp. 7283, 2005. (LAUR033105) Residual Stresses in parts made by solid freeform fabrication methods. M. B. Prime, R. J. Sebring, J. M. Edwards, D. J. Hughes, P. J. Webster, "Laser SurfaceContouring and Spline DataSmoothing for Residual Stress Measurement," Experimental Mechanics, 44(2), pp. 176184, April 2004. (LAUR027241) Includes weld plate results. R. L. Martineau, M. B. Prime, and T. Duffey, "Penetration of HSLA100 Steel with Tungsten Carbide Spheres at Striking Velocities Between 0.8 and 2.5 km/sec," International Journal of Impact Engineering, 30(5), pp. 505520, 2004. These are updated results from the foreign object damage paper below.(LAUR030760) J. Kelleher, M.B. Prime, D. Buttle, P.M. Mummery, P.J. Webster, J. Shackleton, P.J. Withers, "The Measurement of Residual Stress in Railway Rails by Diffraction and Other Methods," Journal of Neutron Research, 11(4), 187193, 2003. (LAUR037128) M. B. Prime, M. A. Newborn, J. A. Balog, "Quenching and ColdWork Residual Stresses in Aluminum Hand Forgings: Contour Method Measurement and FEM Prediction," Materials Science Forum, Vols. 426432, pp. 435440, 2003. (LAUR030585) M. B. Prime, R. L. Martineau, "Mapping Residual Stresses After Foreign Object Damage Using The Contour Method," Materials Science Forum, Vols. 404407, pp. 521526, 2002. (LAUR020556) M. B. Prime, "CrossSectional Mapping of Residual Stresses by Measuring the Surface Contour After a Cut," Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology, 123, pp. 162168, 2001. (LAUR00205) Selected
Los Alamos Conference Papers (back to top) click icon to download pdf file of preprint if available. Isaac DD, Prime MB, Arakere N (2016) Residual Stress Measurement of FullScale JetEngine Bearing Elements Using the Contour Method. Quinn S, Balandraud X (eds) Residual Stress, Thermomechanics & Infrared Imaging, Hybrid Techniques and Inverse Problems, Volume 9: Proceedings of the 2016 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics. Springer International Publishing, pp 6981. This is a good example of what the contours look like when there are no measureable stresses. Prime, M. B., 2011, "Contour Method Advanced Applications: Hoop Stresses in Cylinders and Discontinuities," Engineering Applications of Residual Stress, Volume 8, T. Proulx, ed., Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series, Springer New York, pp. 1328. DOI: 10.1007/9781461402251_2. M. B. Prime and A. L. Kastengren, 2010, "The Contour Method Cutting Assumption: Error Minimization and Correction" Experimental and Applied Mechanics, Volume 6, T. Proulx, ed., Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series, Springer New York, pp. 233250. DOI: 10.1007/9781441997920_40 (LAUR101605). A detailed discussion of errors caused by the shape/flatness of the cut. M. B. Prime, "The Contour Method: A New Approach in Experimental Mechanics" Proceedings of the SEM Annual Conference, June 14, 2009, Albuquerque, NM, USA, paper number 156. (LAUR091497). This paper mostly gives an overview of contour from a mechanics perspective, but Figure 8 and text is the first published description of the finite width cut assumption and bulge error. P. Pagliaro, M.B. Prime, B. Zuccarello, "Multiple Stress Components From Multiple Cuts For the Contour Method", Proceedings of the XXXV AIAS Conference, Universita' Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy, September 1316, 2006, Associazione Italiana per l'Analisi delle Sollecitazioni.(LAUR065610) Includes results from a different specimen than the journal paper. M.B. Prime, T.J. Lienert, W.L. Stellwag, R.S. Casey, “Residual Stress Measurement in Friction Stir Welded Ti6Al4V,” Fabtech International and AWS Welding Show 2005, November 13–16, 2005, Chicago, Illinois. (LAUR058693) M. B. Prime, "Residual Stresses Measured in Quenched HSLA100 Steel Plate" Proceedings of the 2005 SEM Annual Conference and Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, June 79, 2005, Portland, OR, USA, paper number 52 (CDROM proceedings). (LAUR051265) M. B. Prime, R. J. Sebring, J. M. Edwards J. A. Baumann, R. J. Lederich, "ContourMethod Determination of ParentPart Residual Stresses Using a Partially Relaxed FSW Test Specimen," Proc. of the 2004 SEM X Int. Congress & Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, June 710, 2004, Costa Mesa, CA, paper number 144 (CDROM proceedings). (LAUR042131) M. B. Prime, M.R. Hill, A. T. DeWald, R. J. Sebring, V.R. Dave, M.J. Cola, "Residual Stress Mapping in Welds Using the Contour Method," Trends in Welding Research, Proc. of the 6th Int. Conf., 1519 April 2002, Pine Mountain, GA, eds.: S. A. David et al., ASM International, 2003, pp. 891896. (LAUR021071) M. B. Prime, D. J. Hughes, P. J. Webster, "Weld Application of a New Method for CrossSectional Residual Stress Mapping," Proc. 2001 SEM Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, June 46, Portland, OR, pp. 608611. (LAUR011244) M. B. Prime and A. R. Gonzales, "The Contour Method: Simple 2D Mapping of Residual Stresses," Proc. 6th Int. Conf. on Residual Stresses, Oxford, U.K., July 1012, 2000, 1, 617624. The first contour publication, but the information is better in the 2001 journal paper. Publications by Other Researchers (back to top) click icon to download pdf file of preprint if available.(I am not updateing this list anymore) Masoudi, S., Amirian, G., Saeedi, E., and Ahmadi, M., 2015, "The Effect of QuenchInduced Residual Stresses on the Distortion of Machined ThinWalled Parts," J. of Materials Engineering and Performance, 24(10), pp. 39333941. Contour measurements on 60 mm diameter, 60 mm height solid cylinders of aluminum with 3 different treatments. Mahmoudi, A. H., and Saei, A., 2015, "Influence of asymmetrical cuts in measuring residual stresses using contour method," I. J. of Pressure Vessels and Piping, 134, pp. 110. An analytic and experimental study of one particular off center cut experiment. They found that to get the best results: 1) average the contour from the two sides, 2) apply thew averaged contour to separate models of each half of the part, then 3) average the stress results. Balan, B. A., and Achintha, M., 2015, "Assessment of Stresses in Float and Tempered Glass Using Eigenstrains," Experimental Mechanics, 55(7), pp. 13011315. An ambitious and novel measurement. The first use of waterjet cutting for the contour method (EDM will not work on glass). Toparli, M. B., and Fitzpatrick, M. E., 2016, "Development and Application of the Contour Method to Determine the Residual Stresses in Thin LaserPeened Aluminium Alloy Plates," Experimental Mechanics, 56(2), pp. 323330. Because of careful work, the authors have measured near surface stresses in a specimen only 2 mm thick! Toparli, M. B., Fitzpatrick, M., and Gungor, S., 2015, "Determination of Multiple NearSurface Residual Stress Components in Laser Peened Aluminum Alloy via the Contour Method," Met. and Mat. Trans. A, 46(9), pp. 42684275. Starting from previous measurements, the authors now measure the other stress components using the superposition method and xray diffraction. The results look quite good. Olson, M. D., and Hill, M. R., 2015, "A New Mechanical Method for Biaxial Residual Stress Mapping," Experimental Mechanics, 55(6), pp. 11391150. An excellent new implementation of the superposition method to get multiaxial stress states using slitting as the second measurement. Zhang, Z., Yang, Y., Li, L., Chen, B., and Tian, H., 2015, "Assessment of residual stress of 7050T7452 aluminum alloy forging using the contour method," Materials Science and Engineering: A, 644, pp. 6168. Measurements using multiple cuts. Specimen somewhat similar to forging measurements on this site. Xie, P., Zhao, H., Wu, B., and Gong, S., 2015, "Evaluation of Residual Stresses Relaxation by Post Weld Heat Treatment Using Contour Method and Xray Diffraction Method," Experimental Mechanics, 55(7), pp. 1329133. 11 contour measurements to study as welded stresses from Electron Beam Welding of Ti6AL4V and then 10 variations of stress relief. A very well explained and illustrated study. Also impressive validation of surface stresses from the contour method by Xray diffraction. Araujo de Oliveira, J., Kowal, J., Gungor, S., and Fitzpatrick, M. E., 2015, "Determination of normal and shear residual stresses from fracture surface mismatch," Materials & Design, 83, pp. 176184. An extension of the fracture surface method to include shear stresses! Also the first application to a metalmatrix composite! RubioGonzalez, Carlos ; GomezRosas, G. ; Ruiz, R. ; Nait, M. ; Amrouche, A., "Effect of laser shock peening and cold expansion on fatigue performance of open hole samples," Structural Engineering and Mechanics, 53(5), 2015, 867880. Measurement in a hole with laser shock peening and with or without additional cold expansion. Xie, P., Zhao, H.Y., Wu, B., and Gong, S.L., 2015, "Using Finite Element and Contour Method to Evaluate Residual Stress in Thick Ti6Al4V Alloy Welded by Electron Beam Welding," Acta Metall. Sin. (Engl. Lett.), 28(7), pp. 922930. Nice measurement of very local stresses from an ebeam weld. ZHANG Zheng , LI Liang , YANG Yinfei, MA Liangdong, AM Yinlao, "Residual stress measurement in die forging of 7050T74 aluminum alloy using contour method," The Chinese Journal of Nonferrous Metals (Chinese), 24(12), 2014, 30023008. A large forging. Olson, M. D., Hill, M. R., Willis, E., Peterson, A. G., Patel, V. I., and Muránsky, O., 2015, "Assessment of Weld Residual Stress Measurement Precision: MockUp Design and Results for the Contour Method," J. of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 1(3), pp. 031008031008. Includes multiple cuts along the length (and correction for partial relaxation) for repeatability. Paquin, M., Thibault, D., Bocher, P., Lévesque, J. B., Verreman, Y., & Shinozaki, K. (2015). Assessment of cold cracking tests for low transformation temperature martensitic stainless steel multipass welds. Welding in the World. Very compelling results showing a compressive stress for a one pass weld but a change to tension in the first bead when a second bead is added. Weber, R., Rötting, J., Scholtes, B., and BacherHöchst, M., 2014, "Load stresses and residual stresses in the tooth interior," International Gear Conference 2014: 26th–28th August 2014, Lyon, P. Velex, ed., Chandos Publishing, Oxford, pp. 804813. Nice measurements on a gear tooth. DeWald, A. T., Hill, M. R., Benson, M. L., & Rudland, D. L. (2014, July). Measurement of Residual Stress in Reactor Nozzle MockUps Containing Dissimilar Metal Welds. In ASME 2014 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference (pp. V06BT06A056V06BT06A056). American Society of Mechanical Engineers. A very nice set of measurements on a challenging part. Uses the multiple cuts correction. Martina, F., Roy, M., Colegrove, P., & Williams, S. W., 2014, Residual Stress Reduction in High Pressure Interpass Rolled Wire+Arc Additive Manufacturing Ti6Al4V Components, Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium  An Additive Manufacturing Conference. Very nice set of measurements on additively manufactured parts showing the ability to reduce residual stresses by rolling. Citarella, R., Carlone, P., Lepore, M., & Palazzo, G. S. (2015). Numerical–experimental crack growth analysis in AA2024T3 FSWed butt joints. Advances in Engineering Software, 80, 4757. Nice set of measurements in a FSW. Kaiser, R., Stefenelli, M., Hatzenbichler, T., Antretter, T., Hofmann, M., Keckes, J., and Buchmayr, B., 2015, "Experimental characterization and modelling of triaxial residual stresses in straightened railway rails," The Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design, 50(3), 190198. Good application of the contour method to a railroad, somewhat similar results to ours on a rail. They used a stressfree test cut to correct the results, which is uncommon but should be more common (see discussion in 5.4.2 of Contour Method book chapter). Carlone, P., and G. S. Palazzo. "Characterization of TIG and FSW weldings in cast ZE41A magnesium alloy." Journal of Materials Processing Technology 215 (2015): 8794. Good application of the contour method to an Mg FSW. Ahmad, B., and Fitzpatrick, M. E., 2015, "Effect of Ultrasonic Peening and Accelerated Corrosion Exposure on the Residual Stress Distribution in Welded Marine Steel," Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 46(3), 12141226. A very good study on stresses near the toe of a weld. Detailed description of contour measurements including the extra effort to get good nearsurface results.
Hicks, T. G., Mabe, W. R., Miller, J. R., & Mullen, J. V., 2014, "Residual Stress Evaluation of Small Diameter Stainless Steel Piping by Experimental Measurements and Finite Element Analysis." In ASME 2014 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference (pp. V06BT06A077V06BT06A077). American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Measurement of axial stress in butt welded pipes. Show nice details of stresses at weld starts and stops. Woo, W., An, G. B., Em, V. T., DeWald, A. T., and Hill, M. R., 2014, "Throughthickness distributions of residual stresses in an 80 mm thick weld using neutron diffraction and contour method," J. of Materials Science, 50(2) pp. 784793. Measurements in a very thick 75pass weld showing some very interesting results. Hill, M. R., and Olson, M. D., 2014, "Repeatability of the Contour Method for Residual Stress Measurement," Experimental Mechanics, 54(7), 12691277. A great study on contour method repeatability showing about 10 MPa variation for measurements in Aluminum (probabky scales with elastic modulus). Also a good example of using the stressfree test cut correction. Vrancken, B., Cain, V., Knutsen, R., and Van Humbeeck, J., 2014, "Residual stress via the contour method in compact tension specimens produced via selective laser melting," Scripta Materialia, 87, 2932. A very nice use of residual stress measurements used to explain observed fatigue and fracture behavior. Araujo de Oliveira, J., Fitzpatrick, M. E., and Kowal, J., 2014, "Residual stress measurements on a metal matrix composite using the contour method with brittle fracture," Advanced Materials Research, 996, 349354. The first contour measurement on a composite and the first independent attempt to use the fracture surface method. The facture surface part did not agree with neutrons, possibly because of plasticity in the fracture, but very exciting work. Chuan Liu., & Dong, C. L., 2014, "Internal residual stress measurement on linear friction welding of titanium alloy plates with contour method," Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 24(5), 13871392. A nice application of contour to measure very localized stress at a linear friction weld. Zhang, Zheng, et al., 2014, "Machining distortion minimization for the manufacturing of aeronautical structure." The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 73, 17651773. A nice use of contour measurements to predict distortion. Zhao, Xiaohui, et al. "Research on fatigue behavior and residual stress of largescale cruciform welding joint with groove." Materials & Design 63 (2014): 593599. This large crossshaped specimen was a challenge to measure. I would have much rather seen them measure the whole surface instead of assuming quartersymmetry. Hosseinzadeh, F., Kowal, J., and Bouchard, P. J., 2014, "Towards good practice guidelines for the contour method of residual stress measurement," The Journal of Engineering. The most comprehensive write up to date on good practices for the contour method. Traoré, Y., Hosseinzadeh, F., and Bouchard, P. J., 2014, "Plasticity in the Contour Method of Residual Stress Measurement," Advanced Materials Research, 996, pp. 337342. A well done FEM study on plasticity. The assumptions are very conservative  plane stress, no strain hardening, and a tophat residual stress profile, which gives the highest theoretically possible KIrs. Results show very nice qualitative agreement with some results in the literature. Levieil, B., Calloch, S., Doudard, C., Thévenet, D., & Leblé, B. (2014, October). Residual Stress Measurement Methods Comparison in HighStrength Steel for Naval Application. Advanced Materials Research (Vol. 996, pp. 343348). Measurement on a steel plate with a coldexpanded hole. Not much detail. Godin, S., Thibault, D., and Lévesque, J. B., 2014, "An Experimental Comparison of WeldInduced Residual Stresses Using Different Stainless Steel Filler Metals Commonly Used for Hydraulic Turbines Manufacturing and Repair," Materials Science Forum, 768, pp. 628635. Look especially at Figures 4 & 5 and the accompanying discussion. The wellresolved stress map is being used for a really insightful interpretation of the stresses in the different weld beads, and the microstructure, to look at structural integrity issues. Naveed, N., Hosseinzadeh, F., & Kowal, J., 2013, " Residual Stress Measurement in a Stainless Steel Clad Ferritic Plate Using the Contour Method," ASME 2013 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference (pp. V005T11A006V005T11A006). American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Nice measurement technique and a good comparison with neutron results. Patel, V. I., Muránsky, O., Hamelin, C. J., Olson, M. D., Hill, M. R., & Edwards, L., 2014, "A Validated Numerical Model for Residual Stress Predictions in an EightPassWelded Stainless Steel Plate," Materials Science Forum, 777, 465. Notably, the contour measurement was repeated 5 times to look at repeatability of the measurement. Liu, C., Zhu, H.Y., and Dong, C.L., 2014, "Internal residual stress measurement on inertia friction welding of nickelbased superalloy," Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, p. 1362171814Y.0000000206. Maybe the first application of multiple cuts to a cylinder. Used to map hoop (first cut) and axial (second cut) stress in a thickwalled interiawelded cylinder. Ball, D. L. et al., 2014, A Detailed Evaluation of the Effects of Bulk Residual Stress on Fatigue in Aluminum. Advanced Materials Research, 891, 12051211. A very nice set of 20 contour measurements is only a small part of this excellent study. Hosseinzadeh, F., & Bouchard, P. J., 2013, "Residual Stress Measurement of a Hipped Bonded Valve Seat Using the Contour Method," ASME 2013 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference. Paper No. PVP201397922. High quality work using several stateoftheart techniques (self restraint, sacrificial layers, sacrificial plug) to get the best quality cut and good results up close to the surface. Surface stresses agree quite well with hole drilling. Badel, P., Genovese, K., & Avril, S., 2012, "3D Residual Stress Field in Arteries: Novel Inverse Method Based on Optical Full‐field Measurements," Strain, 48(6), 528538. Very interesting use of contour method principles to measure residual stress in arteries. Elmesalamy, A., J. A. Francis, and L. Li, 2014, "A comparison of residual stresses in multi pass narrow gap laser welds and gastungsten arc welds in AISI 316L stainless steel." Int. J. of Pressure Vessels and Piping 113, 4959. Measurements on 8 specimens to study the welding processes. Also a comparison with xray surface stresses. Trudel, A., Lévesque, M., & Brochu, M, 2014, "Microstructural effects on the fatigue crack growth resistance of a stainless steel CA6NM weld," Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 115, 6072. Nice application of contour to weldclad steel CT specimens, to sort out residual stress effects on fatigue crack growth studies. Braga, D. F. O., Coules, H. E., Pirling, T., RichterTrummer, V., Colegrove, P., and de Castro, P. M. S. T., 2013, "Assessment of residual stress of welded structural steel plates with or without post weld rolling using the contour method and neutron diffraction," J. of Materials Processing Technology, 213(12), pp. 23232328. Some info on data processing for the contour method, and a nice study on the big effect of rolling treatment on welding stress. Peak stresses change from +400 MPa to 1300MPa. Mahmoudi, A. H., Hosseinzadeh, A. R., and Jooya, M., 2013, "Plasticity effect on residual stresses measurement using contour method," International Journal of EngineeringTransactions A: Basics, 26(10), pp. 12031212. A nice study using quenched cylinders with different stress levels and an FEM model of incremental cutting to look at plasticity. This is the first plasticity study to sort out bulge errors at the same time. Toparli, M. B., Fitzpatrick, M. E., and Gungor, S., 2013, "Improvement of the Contour Method for Measurement of NearSurface Residual Stresses from Laser Peening," Experimental Mechanics, 53(9), pp. 17051718. A study on the ability of the contour method to measure stresses near the surface. Rolph, J., Preuss, M., Iqbal, N., Hofmann, M., Nikov, S., Hardy, M. C., Glavicic, M. G., Ramanathan, R., and Evans, A., 2012, "Residual Stress Evolution during Manufacture of Aerospace Forgings," Superalloys 2012, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., pp. 881891. Nice measurments of very high (800 MPa) stresses in a forging of Nickel Superalloy RR1000. And very good agreement with neutron results. Kartal, M. E., 2013, "Analytical solutions for determining residual stresses in twodimensional domains using the contour method," Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Science, 469(2159) p. 20130367. The first ever analytical solution (as compared to FEM) for the contour method. Very elegant math. Applies to 2D domains. Carlone, P., and Palazzo, G. S., 2013, "Longitudinal Residual Stress Analysis in AA2024T3 Friction Stir Welding," The Open Mechanical Engineering Journal, 7, pp. 1826. Nice parameter study of FSW with 30 contour measurements. Rolph, J., Iqbal, N., Hoffman, M., Evans, A., Hardy, M., Glavicic, M., and Preuss, M., 2013, "The effect of d0 reference value on a neutron diffraction study of residual stress in a γ/γ′nickelbase superalloy," J. of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design, 48(4), pp. 219228. Stresses over 1000 MPa. See validation page for validation measurements. Woo, W., An, G. B., Kingston, E. J., Dewald, A. T., Smith, D. J., and Hill, M. R., 2013, "Throughthickness distributions of residual stresses in two extreme heatinput thick welds: A neutron diffraction, contour method and deep hole drilling study," Acta Materialia, 61(10), pp. 3564  3574. The contour measurements were especially informative in comparing two welds with very different 2D stress distributions. See validation page for validation measurements. Citarella, R. G., Carlone, P., Lepore, M., and Palazzo, G. S., 2013, "A FEMDBEM Investigation of the Influence of Process Parameters on Crack Growth in Aluminum Friction Stir Welded Butt Joints," Key Engineering Materials, 554557, pp. 21182126. Measurements on 4 different variations on a friction stir weld. Paulo, R. M. F., Carlone, P., Valente, R. A. F., TeixeiraDias, F., and Palazzo, G. S., 2013, "Integrated Design and Numerical Simulation of Stiffened Panels Including Friction Stir Welding Effects," Key Engineering Materials, 554557, pp. 22372242. Measurements used to study collapse load of a panel. Liu, C., and Yi, X., 2013, "Residual stress measurement on AA6061T6 aluminum alloy friction stir butt welds using contour method," Materials & Design, 46, pp. 366371. Nice measurements in FSW butt joints. Kundu, A., Bouchard, P., Kumar, S., Venkata, K., Francis, J., Paradowska, A., Dey, G., and Truman, C., 2013, "Residual stresses in P91 steel electron beam welds," Science and Technology of Welding & Joining, 18(1), pp. 7075. Comparison with neutron in butt welds. Sacrificial layers were used to improve EDM cut. Zabeen, S., Preuss, M., and Withers, P., 2013, "Residual stresses caused by headon and 45° foreign object damage for a laser shock peened Ti6Al4V alloy aerofoil," Materials Science and Engineering: A, 10, pp. 518–527. Measurement of aslaserpeened stresses and then after impact in an airfoil shaped specimen. Nice comparison with synchrotron. Frankel, P. G., Withers, P. J., Preuss, M., Wang, H. T., Tong, J., and Rugg, D., 2012, "Residual stress fields after FOD impact on flat and aerofoilshaped leading edges," Mechanics of Materials, 55, pp. 130145. Measurements on challenging specimens with high stress gradients. Carlone, P., and Palazzo, G. S., 2012, "Experimental Analysis of the Influence of Process Parameters on Residual Stress in AA2024T3 Friction Stir Welds," Key Engineering Materials, 504506, pp. 753758. Using the contour method, they were able to measure 15 specimens and identify residual stress trends as a function of variations in the FSW process. Hosseinzadeh, F., Ledgard, P., and Bouchard, P., 2012, "Controlling the Cut in Contour Residual Stress Measurements of Electron Beam Welded Ti6Al4V Alloy Plates," Experimental Mechanics. Used multiple cuts approach to map both longitudinal and transverse stresses. Very high (970 MPa) longitudinal peak stress and great transverse results that identify stress transients neat the weld start. Also some great information on improving cut quality. Traore, Y., Paddea, S., Bouchard, P., and Gharghouri, M., 2013, "Measurement of the Residual Stress Tensor in a Compact Tension Weld Specimen," Experimental Mechanics, 53, pp. 605618. Very high stresses (600 MPa) stresses measured in an electron beam welded compact tension specimen of stainless steel. Agree very well with neutron and slitting in spite of nonideal cutting conditions. Hosseinzadeh, F., and Bouchard, P., 2012, "Mapping Multiple Components of the Residual Stress Tensor in a Large P91 Steel Pipe Girth Weld Using a Single Contour Cut," Experimental Mechanics. Mapped multiple stress components in a large welded cylinder using the superposition method. and a new technqiue for cylinders. Very nice results. RichterTrummer, V., Suzano, E., Beltrao, M., Roos, A., dos Santos, J. F., and de Castro, P. M. S. T., 2012, "Influence of the FSW clamping force on the final distortion and residual stress field," Materials Science and Engineering A, 538, pp. 8188. Contour measurements on 3.2 mm thick plates of friction stir welded aluminum show that the final residual stresses depend strongly on clamping forces during welding. Cuellar, S. D., Hill, M. R., DeWald, A. T., and Rankin, J. E., 2012, "Residual stress and fatigue life in laser shock peened open hole samples," International Journal of Fatigue, 44, pp. 813. Stress maps in 4 mm thick Ti6Al4V plates correlate very well with fatigue performance. Cottam, R., Thorogood, K., Lui, Q., Wong, Y., and Brandt, M., 2012, "The Effect of Laser Cladding Deposition Rate on Residual Stress Formation in Ti6Al4V Clad Layers," Key Engineering Materials, 520, pp. 309313. Measurements show modest tensile stresses in cladding layers. P John Bouchard, Peter Ledgard, Stan Hiller, Foroogh Hosseinzadeh, "Making the Cut for the Contour Method," Experimental Mechanics, New Trends and Perspectives, Proc. of the 15th Int'l Conf on Experimental Mechanics, Paper 2960, Porto, Portugal, 2227 July 2012. Very nice documentation of cutting errors and trials to select an EDM machine. Hosseinzadeh, F., Toparli, M. B., Bouchard, P. J., 2012, "Slitting and Contour Method Residual Stress Measurements in an Edge Welded Beam," J. of Pressure Vessel Technology, 134(1), pp. 011402011406. Beacuse specimen was measured by slitting, it was only clamped on one side during cut. Can cause errors. Results are still good compared with slitting, synchrotron, and neutron measurements. Savaria, V., Hoseini, M., Bridier, F., Bocher, P., and Arkinson, P., 2011, "On the measurement of residual stress in induction hardened parts," Materials Science Forum, 681, pp. 431436. Measurement of case hardening stresses in a very hard steel. A comparison of CMM and laser scanner for the contour measurement showed no differences. D. H. Stuart, M. R. Hill, J. C. Newman Jr, 2011, "Correlation of onedimensional fatigue crack growth at coldexpanded holes using linear fracture mechanics and superposition," Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 78(7), 13891406. Contour stress measurement of stresses near a cold expanded hole 7075 Al. Figure 7 shows good repeatability from 6 measurements. V RichterTrummer and P M S T de Castro, 2011, "The throughthethickness measurement of residual stress in a thick welded steel compact tension specimen by the contour method," J. of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design, 46, pp. 315322, doi:10.1177/0309324711401780. Contour stress measurement of stresses in thick CT specimens with 32 pass double V weld. Nice results. Rodríguez, E., Martín, C., Cortizo, J., Guirao, J., and Sierra, J., 2011, "Validation of Residual Stresses of Finite Element Simulation of Multi Pass ButtWelded Plates Using the Contour Method," Materials Science Forum, 681, pp. 6772. Contour stress measurements in 2 different MIG welded plates of 316 stainless teel, compared with FEM model. RichterTrummer, V., Moreira, P., Ribeiro, J., and de Castro, P., 2011, "The Contour Method for Residual Stress Determination Applied to an AA6082T6 Friction Stir Butt Weld," Materials Science Forum, 681, pp. 177181. Contour stress measurements on a 3mm thick FSW  failry thin. Note the difference in contours on the two sides since it was only clamped on one side during cutting. RubioGonzález, C., FelixMartinez, C., GomezRosas, G., Ocaña, J. L., Morales, M., and Porro, J. A., 2011, "Effect of laser shock processing on fatigue crack growth of duplex stainless steel," Materials Science and Engineering: A, 528(3), pp. 914919. Contour stress measurements on a laser shock peened steel plate. Notice (Fig 9b) how contour shows not only the compressive peening stresses but also where the balancing tensile stresses are. Moat, R. J., Pinkerton, A. J., Li, L., Withers, P. J., and Preuss, M., 2011, "Residual stresses in laser direct metal deposited Waspaloy," Materials Science and Engineering, A528(6), pp. 22882298. A thorough study of a laserdeposited nickelbased superalloy. Very good agreement between contour and neutron diffraction. Dai, H., Francis, J. A., and Withers, P. J., 2010, "Prediction of residual stress distributions for single weld beads deposited on to SA508 steel including phase transformation effects," Materials Science and Technology, 26, pp. 940949. Measurement of transverse stresses in a beadonplate weld compared against a sophisticated weld model. Thibault D, Bocher P, Thomas M, Gharghouri M, Côté M, "Residual stress characterization in low transformation temperature 13%Cr4%Ni stainless steel weld by neutron diffraction and the contour method," Materials Science and Engineering: A, 527(23):62056210, 2010. Measurement of weld stresses where the top bead ends up in compression because of martensitic phase change. See validation page for discussion of difference between contour and neutron results. Simoneau, R., Thibault, D., and Fihey, J.L., 2009, "A comparison of residual stress in hammerpeened, multipass steel welds – A514 (S690Q) and S4150," Welding in the World, 53(5/6), pp. R124R134. See Figure 8 for very informative stress maps in thick welds. Figure 2 also shows what the measured surface contour looks like. Unfortunately, it is hard to get an article from this journal. Make sure to get a copy in color, or else the figures will not make sense. O. Hatamleh, S. Forth, A.P. Reynolds, 2010, "Fatigue Crack Growth of Peened Friction StirWelded 7075 Aluminum Alloy under Different Load Ratios," J. Materials Engineering and Performance, 19(1), 99106. Because of the testing configuration in the fatigue studies, the contour method results were much better at explaining residual stress effects on fatigue then the xray results were. Hacini, L., Van Lê, N., and Bocher, P., 2009, "Evaluation of Residual Stresses Induced by Robotized Hammer Peening by the Contour Method," Experimental Mechanics, 49(6), 775783. Some nice technique development: more robust clamping and stress calculation without data smoothing or fitting. A nice parameter study with 10 samples measured. See Figure 9d for an example of how measuring a 2D stress map identifies unexpected regions where tensile stresses increase. K. K. Liu and M. R. Hill, "The effects of laser peening and shot peening on fretting fatigue in Ti–6Al–4V coupons," Tribology Int., 42(9), 2009, 12501262. Failure initiation could be correlated with the location of maximum subsurface tensile stress, measured with contour and slitting. O. Hatamleh, M. Hill, S. Forth, D. Garcia, "Fatigue crack growth performance of peened friction stir welded 2195 aluminum alloy joints at elevated and cryogenic temperatures," Materials Science and Engineering: A, 519, 2009, 6169. A very nice study using measured residual stresses to calculate KI_{rs} and examine fatigue crack growth. Hatamleh, O., Rivero, I. V., and Swain, S. E., "An Investigation of the Residual Stress Characterization and Relaxation in Peened Friction Stir Welded AluminumLithium Alloy Joints," Materials & Design, 30(9), pp. 33673373, 2009. The contour method gave very informative 2D stress maps. For example, Figures 8a and b show how cyclic loading caused a split in the tensile stress field. That effect is caused by the lower yield strength in the weld nugget. Hatamleh O, DeWald A, "An Investigation of the Peening Effects on the Residual Stresses in Friction Stir Welded 2195 and 7075 Aluminum Alloy Joints," J. Materials Processing Tech. 209:48224829, 2009. Nice correlation between hardness and the change in residual stress. Wilson GS, Grandt Jr AF, Bucci RJ, Schultz RW, "Exploiting Bulk Residual Stresses to Improve Fatigue Crack Growth Performance of Structures," Int. J of Fatigue, 31, 12861299, 2009. A great demonstration of the effect of bulk residual stresses on fatigue life and how to successfully predict different lives depending on where specimen is excised from main part. Measurements were done with the contour method. Frankel, P.; Preuss, M.; Steuwer, A.; Withers, P.J.; Bray, S., "Comparison of residual stresses in Ti6Al4V and Ti6Al2Sn4Zr2Mo linear friction welds," Materials Science and Technology, 25(5), 640650, 2009. See Figure 10 for nice stress maps of very localized stresses. See Greg Johnson dissertation for more details on similar (same?) results including special data processing to resolve sharp peaks. S. Ismonov, S. R. Daniewicz, J. C. Newman, Jr., M. R. Hill, M. R. Urban, "Three Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of a SplitSleeve Cold Expansion Process," J. of Engineering Materials and Technology, 131, 031007, 2009. Three contour method measurements in 7075T6 Al. Figures 8b,c, and d show good repeatability of results in the bulk. Figures 8a, e, and f are right on the surface, and are less repeatable, as expected. The International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping Special Issue (Vol. 86(1), 2009) on The NeT Residual Stress Measurement and Modelling Round Robin on a Single Weld BeadonPlate Specimen (this issue available for free download!) has a great roundrobin study on residual stresses in a weld bead on 316L stainless. Specimens were measured using at multiple neutron labs and one contour and one deep hole drilling:
Murugan, N., and Narayanan, R., 2009, "Finite Element Simulation of Residual Stresses and Their Measurement by Contour Method," Materials & Design, 30(6), pp. 20672071. A nice comparison of contour results with FEM on a welded T joint. The part was only clamped on one side during cutting which is why the contours on one half after cutting is so much smaller than the other half (see Figures 7 and 8). Averaging should still give the correct results, but constraining both sides also reduces other errors. Thibault, D., Bocher, P., and Thomas, M., 2009, "Residual Stress and Microstructure in Welds of 13%Cr4%Ni Martensitic Stainless Steel," J. of Materials Processing Technology, 209(4), pp. 21952202. Very interesting results on a weld on martensitic steel. The contour results show that the last weld bead is in compression because of the phase change, with large balancing tension elsewhere including previous beads. Hatamleh, O., 2009, "A Comprehensive Investigation on the Effects of Laser and Shot Peening on Fatigue Crack Growth in Friction Stir Welded AA 2195 Joints," International Journal of Fatigue, 31(5), pp. 974988. A very nice study of effect of induces residual stresses on fatigue crack growth rate. Figures 1216 show the contour results, which illustrate not only the induced surface stresses but also the subsurface rearrangement of stresses. The Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design Special Issue on Residual Strain Analysis has some great papers. These ones have contour results:
RichterTrummer, Valentin, Tavares, Sérgio M. O., Moreira, Pedro M. G. P. et al., 2008, "Residual stress measurement using the contour and the sectioning methods in a MIG weld: Effects on the stress intensity factor." Ciência & Tecnologia dos Materiais, 2008, 20(12), p.114119. ISSN 08708312. An application to a thin welded plate where only a 1D stress profile was measured. Validated by sectioning. (26 MB) Johnson, G, 2008, "Residual stress measurements using the contour method," Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Manchester, School of Materials. A very thorough thesis with lots of practical and helpful information on the contour method and then some very good applications including several advances. The Matlab files described in the dissertation and some examples are available here: GJohnsonFiles.zip (3.6Mb). Use of the spline program requires the curve fitting toolbox. The file Contents.m in the contour method subdirectory tells you the order to use for processing data. Start with the cmm_clean.m file in the contour method subdirectory. (Posted with permission of author) (17 MB) Pagliaro P, 2008, "Mapping Multiple Residual Stress Components Using the Contour Method and Superposition," Ph.D. Dissertation, Universitá degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo. Piero did much of this work here at Los Alamos. The dissertation is excellent with new theory and many experiments. The Appendices have useful programs, scripts, and input files. (Posted with permission of author) Dennis, R. J., Bray, D.P., Leggatt, N.A., Turski, M. , 2008, "Assessment of the Influence of Plasticity and Constraint on Measured Residual Stresses Using the Contour Method." 2008 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division Conference, Chicago, IL, USA, PVP200861490. A detailed simulation of possible plasticity errors and constraint issue in the specimen from Kartal et al. and another specimen. Bouchard, PJ, 2008, "Code Characterisation of Weld Residual Stress Levels and the Problem of Innate Scatter," Int. J. of Pressure Vessels and Piping 85:152165. A very nice paper on scatter in residual stresses. There are some contour results in Figure 15 comparing with neutron diffraction. A really great presentation from Manchester on analyzing contour data: "From Surface Profile to Residual Stress using the Contour Method (ppt file)," YS Xiong, J Kelleher, P Frankel, PJ Withers, ICRS 8. Lyes Hacini, Van Ngan Lê & Philippe Bocher, "Traitement de surfaces par impacts: Évaluation des contraintes résiduelles induites par martelage," 18ème Congrès Français de Mécanique Grenoble, 2731 août 2007. An article in French with some nice contour results. Hatamleh, O. ,"Effects of peening on mechanical properties in friction stir welded 2195 aluminum alloy joints," Materials Science & Engineering: A, 492(12), pp.16876, 2008. Mostly about nice measurements of heterogeneous material properties. Has some good contour results. Note the striking result showing the subsurface balancing tensile stresses in Figure 10. M.E. Kartal, C.D.M. Liljedahl, S. Gungor, L. Edwards, M.E. Fitzpatrick, "Determination of the profile of the complete residual stress tensor in a VPPA weld using the multiaxial contour method," Acta Materialia, 56(16), 44174428, 2008. DOI link. A validation of the DeWald and Hill multiaxial contour method using neutron diffraction measurements on a weld plate. Edwards, L; Smith, MC; Turski, M; Fitzpatrick, ME; Bouchard, PJ, "Advances in residual stress modeling and measurement for the structural integrity assessment of welded thermal power plant," Advanced Materials Research; 2008; 4142, p.391400. A nice paper on stresses and power plant welds. A. Evans; G. Johnson; A. King; P. J. Withers, "Characterization of laser peening residual stresses in Al 7075 by synchrotron diffraction and the contour method," Journal of Neutron Research, 15(2), 2007, 147  154. A very nice measurement of laser peening stresses including a measurement of stresses at the site of a single impact as well as a region treated with overlapping impacts. Also a comparison with synchrotron xray. The 2D contour maps are especially informative. In Figure 8, note the balancing tensile stress outside of the peened region, not only below it. Withers, P.J.; Turski, M.; Edwards, L.; Bouchard, P.J.; Buttle, D.J., "Recent advances in residual stress measurement," Int. J. of Pressure Vessels and Piping, 85, 2008, pp. 118127. This paper gives a nice overview of three newer stress measurement techniques in the context of measuring welds for nuclear pressure vessels. The contour measurements were of a simulated repair weld and were novel because the transverse stresses were measured, as compared to longitudinal. The results were very informative and agreed well with neutron measurements. H. Nasri, J. Lanteigne, and H. Champliaud, "Usage of the Contour Method in Measuring Residual Stress in Welding and PeenWelding Applications," Proceedings of the IASTED Asian Conference: Modelling and Simulation, Beijing, China, 10/8/2007  10/10/2007, L. Miao, Editor, ISBN CD 9780889867017, Paper 571801. This paper shows a good application of contour to measure quite high stresses in a welded steel and the change in stress after hammer peening. 2 presentations at the 2006 USAF Aircraft Structural Integrity Program had contour method results:
Omar Hatamleh, Jed Lyons, Royce Forman, 2007, "Laser Peening and Shot Peening Effects on Fatigue Life and Surface Roughness of Friction Stir Welded 7075T7351 Aluminum," Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures 30 (2), 115–130. doi:10.1111/j.14602695.2006.01093.x. A very detailed study of fatigue life after laser peening a FSW with some contour results. Although the contour method has a tough time getting stresses very near the surface, note how the subsurface tensile stresses have changed after laser peening; I find it fascinating. When you get more surface compression, there must be more tension somewhere else. Most of this material is available in a presentation from the USAF Aircraft Structural Integrity Program: http://www.asipcon.com/2006/06_proceed/Tuesday/0200_Harrison.pdf The contour results are on page 13. [The measurements were performed by Hill Engineering] Kartal, M ; Turski, M ; Johnson, G ; Fitzpatrick, ME ; Gungor, S ; Withers, PJ ; Edwards, L, 2006, "Residual stress measurements in single and multipass groove weld specimens using neutron diffraction and the contour method," Materials Science Forum, Vols. 524525, pp. 671676. A nice comparison of contour method results to neutron diffraction in single and multipass welds on 316L stainless steel. DeWald, A. T., and Hill, M. R., 2006, "MultiAxial Contour Method for Mapping Residual Stresses in Continuously Processed Bodies," Experimental Mechanics, 46(4), pp. 473490. A great combination of the contour method and an eigenstrain analysis to get multiaxial stress measurements. Shin, S. H., 2005, "FEM Analysis of Plasticityinduced Error on Measurement of Welding Residual Stress by the Contour Method," Journal of mechanical science and technology, 19(10), pp.18851890. A good first study of plasticity effects on contour. Y. Zhang, S. Pratihar, M.E. Fitzpatrick, L. Edwards, "Residual Stress Mapping in Welds Using the Contour Method," Materials Science Forum, Vols. 490491, pp. 294299, 2005. A good application of contour to bead on plate weld in 316L stainless steel and comparison with neutron results. (free postprint from CDL) DeWald, A. T., Rankin, J. E., Hill, M. R., Lee, M. J., and Chen, H. L., 2004, "Assessment of Tensile Residual Stress Mitigation in Alloy 22 Welds Due to Laser Peening," J. Engineering Materials and Technology, 126(4), pp. 465473. A great application of contour to welded Alloy 22 plate before and after laser peening. Lots of good detail and discussion on the contour method measurements. Besides its purpose of understanding the peening process, Figure 11 well illustrates the repeatability of the contour method. Zhang, Y.; Ganguly, S.; Edwards, L.; Fitzpatrick, M.E., " Crosssectional mapping of residual stresses in a VPPA weld using the contour method," Acta Materialia, 52(17), pp. 52255232, October 2004. A great application of contour to a weld in Aluminum. The comparison with both neutron and synchrotron diffraction measurements makes this the most comprehensive validation of the contour method to date. Y. Zhang, "Numerical and Experimental Exploration of the Contour Method for Residual Stress Evaluation," Doctoral Thesis, Open University, UK. A very comprehensive study on the contour method including applications to a VPPA weld, a MIG weld, and cold expanded holes. M. R. Hill et al., "Laser Peening Technology," Advanced Materials & Processes, 161(8), 6567, August 2003. Has nice contour method stress maps of a weld before and after laser peening. A. T. DeWald and M. R. Hill (2001). " Residual Stress in a Thick Steel Weld Determined Using the Contour Method." Report on LANL contract 3239000101 49. A very nice measurement and an excellent report with lots of practical information and some MATLAB scripts. The analysis of the data took a lot of work because the cut (that I gave them) was very poor. Y. Zhang, M. E. Fitzpatrick and L. Edwards, " Measurement of the Residual Stresses around a Cold Expanded Hole in an EN8 Steel Plate Using the Contour Method," Materials Science Forum, Vols. 404407, pp. 527532, 2002. The first publication outside of Los Alamos using the contour method to make a full 2D residual stress map. Iikka
Virkkunen, "Thermal Fatigue of Austenitic and Duplex Stainless
Steels," Doctoral Dissertation at Helsinki University of Technology,
November 2001. Can
be downloaded here.




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