CINT capabilities are provided to users through the CINT Scientists and other technical contacts. Listed below are brief descriptions of these capabilities and the associated staff who use them for their nanoscience integration research. In some cases, one capability may be used by several staff members in distinct ways; hence we provide multiple contact names in order that the prospective user may determine the appropriate staff member through which the capability may be accessed.

We strongly encourage prospective CINT users to contact the person(s) associated with a capability of interest in order ensure that the capability will meet the needs of the user. We welcome user proposals that involve multiple capabilities.





1a. Synthesis Capabilities (bottom-up chemical, physical, biological methods to create/ modify discrete nanoscale structures or components such as molecules, particles, tubes, rods, etc.)

Epitaxial and nano-composite metal-oxide films
Wide use of metal-oxide materials in future device applications is expected due to the tremendous variety of phenomena that they exhibit such as superconductivity, ferroelectricity, piezoelectricity, ferromagnetism, and semiconductive properties. Our pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and polymer-assisted deposition (PAD) capabilities allow one to deposit epitaxial and nano-composite metal-oxide films with desired properties. The PLD and PAD also allow one to grow multilayer films for monolithic integration of dissimilar materials with complementary functionalities on a single platform to fabricate novel devices. Collaborations are welcome to explore new functional metal-oxide films, investigate the effects of strain imposed by coherent epitaxy on the properties of the films, and study nano-composite and multilayer metal-oxide films.
Capabilities available include: 
 - Pulsed laser deposition 
 - Polymer-assisted deposition 
Contact:             Dr. Quanxi Jia

Physical Synthesis of nanostructured materials            
Our physical vapor deposition (PVD) capabilities are used to synthesize metal, alloy, ceramic, or composite materials where the internal nanostructuring dimension such as layer thickness, grain size, or particle size may be well controlled down to the nanometer level. Some examples include, but are not limited to, nanolayered composites, metals or alloys with nanometer-scale grain size, crystalline or amorphous matrixes embedded with nano-dots with well-controlled sizes and spacing, nano-twinned materials, etc. The total thickness of the sample may vary from sub-micrometer to a few tens of micrometers. Through appropriate masking techniques, the films can be patterned in shapes, e.g., as self-supported tensile samples. Energetic ion or neutral atom bombardment during growth are used to tailor the nanostructuring dimension, residual stress, texture, epitaxy, etc. Post-deposition vacuum annealing or ion-bombardment facilities are also available for modification of the PVD-synthesized materials. Collaborative work on stresses and mechanical behavior, physical properties such as magnetic, electronic and optical, thermal properties, fatigue, thermal stability, fracture, and creep of these PVD-synthesized nano-materials as a function of the nanostructuring dimensions is envisioned. Capabilities available include:
•    Magnetron sputtering
•    Electron beam evaporation
Contact:             Dr. Nate Mara

Atomic Layer Deposition System           
This state-of-the-art atomic layer deposition (ALD) system, housed in our Integration Lab, utilizes precursor gases with single atomic layer control to enable conformal coating for nanoscale structure integration. ALD offers a unique means for the conformal deposition of dielectric and metallic films on 3-dimensional nanostructures with single atomic layer control.           
Contact:             Dr. John Nogan

Low-pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition            
A low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) / diffusion furnace has been installed in our Integration Lab for deposition of high-quality low-stress films including LPCVD SiN, thermal SiO2, LPCVD SIO2, and LPCVD Poly- Si layers for electrical isolation and for mechanical support. Mechanical support allows for high-density films (e.g. low imperfections) without significant stresses. For micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) and nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) the ability to tailor the stress is key as stress and stress gradients are dominant mechanisms that induce device failure.           
Contact:             Dr. John Nogan

III-V Semiconductor Molecular Beam Epitaxy            
The molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) capabilities allow the growth of As-based III-V compound semiconductors. The system specializes in high-purity, high-mobility materials grown with monolayer precision. Due to the high-mobility nature of the system, cleanliness is of great importance so the materials available are limited.  Also doping is done with great care. N-type doping is performed using Si and limited p-type doping using a solid C source. 
Typical areas of interest for growth available to CINT Users include:
 - Low dimension semiconductor systems
 - Quantum transport
 - Electronic devices based on intrasubband transitions           
Contact:             Dr. John Reno

Furnace-Type Solid-Source CVD System for Nanowire Growth           
A new furnace-type solid-source CVD system for nanowire growth has been operational since the middle of February 2012. This new CVD system is used for the synthesis of new materials including group III-V nanowires and their heterostructures, functional nanowires for thermoelectric applications, and topological insulators. The growth of InAs nanowires has been demonstrated. Moreover, the new CVD system allows the growth of 2D-1D hybrid structures such as semiconductor nanowires on 2D structures like single-layered materials. This expanded materials synthesis capability will be integrated into other major areas of study at CINT.            
Contact:             Dr. Jinkyoung Yoo

Metamaterials and Plasmonic nanofabrication           
CINT has extensive capabilities for nanofabrication of plasmonic and metamaterial samples, both on passive dielectric substrates (glass or undoped semiconductors) or on active semiconductor heterostructure substrates. The metamaterial/plasmonic resonators can be fabricated using electron-beam lithography and lift-off or focus-ion beam milling. Different metals are available, such as Au, Ag, Pt, etc.           
Contact:            Dr.Igal Brener

Carbon Nanotube Chemistry, Processing and Synthesis            
Extensive capability exists for carbon nanotube chemistry, processing and synthesis.  Sonication and ultracentrifugation capability enables routine generation of nanotube samples in a wide range of matrices, including surfactant suspensions and as sol- and aerogels.  Other non-covalent functionalization chemistries are available. Ultracentrifuges and non-covalent chemistries also support expertise and capability in density-based and aqueous two-phase separations, with single-chirality and electronic-type samples being generated.  Expertise is available for studying the fundamentals of non-covalent functionalization aimed at understanding nanotube surface structures and dynamic towards applying that understanding to enhance separations, control photophysical response, enable new self-assembly processes, template 1-D structures, and to enable new optical composite materials.  Capability for CVD growth of ultralong, parallel single-walled nanotubes also exists.           
Contact:             Dr. Steve Doorn

Automated Nanomaterials Synthesizer: Computer-controlled Synthesis and Real-Time Diagnostics:
Custom, computer-controlled reactor system comprises eight parallel reactors that are individually addressable with a combined capability for (1) fully automated, software controlled ‘round-the-clock’ chemical-precursor additions, (2) automated sampling, and (3) programmed in-situ optical characterization (absorption, fluorescence, turbidity). Reactor maximum volume and temperature are 250 mL and 300 °C, respectively. This unique system will prove a versatile and powerful tool for controlled, quasi-combinatorial solution-phase synthesis of simple and complex nanostructures, especially heterostructured nanoparticles like thick-shell ("giant") core/shell quantum dots and multicomponent/multifunctional nanoparticles, as well as an option for scaling-up optimized reactions.           
Contact:            Dr. Jennifer Hollingsworth

DC Sputtering/Thermal Evaporation System for Metal Film Growth: Sequential Depositions and Uniform, Thick Films           
The AJA International, Inc. ATC Orion Series Combination DC Sputtering/Thermal Evaporation System provides ease-of-use and operating flexibility. The magnetron sputtering sources feature a modular magnet array that allows operation in a variety of modes depending on our particular application for a specific film deposition run. The system also allows for “confocal sputtering,” which provides rapid sputtering of high quality and uniformly thick metal films (+/- 2.5% thickness uniformity over 4” diameter substrates). The unique isolation chimney prevents cross-contamination of target materials and allows deposition profiles to be fine-tuned, affording sequential deposition of a series of metals (2-4) in single runs (without breaking vacuum). The substrate holder has recently been updated with heating capabilities: radiant heating to 850 °C, over-temp protection, and +/- 1 °C temperature stability (oxygen-environment compatible).
Contact:            Dr. Jennifer Hollingsworth

Flow-Solution-Liquid-Solid (Flow-SLS) Nanowire: Synthesis New technique for dynamic growth control           
We have created the solution-phase equivalent to vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) chamber by adapting flask-based solution-liquid-solid (SLS) growth to synthesis in a microfluidic reactor. Specifically, using a cusom microfluidics chip, we hold metal-nanoparticle growth catalysts in a flow of solution-phase reactants and growth-controlling ligands. The resulting nanowires, like their VLS counterparts, grow from a solid substrate. The dynamic nature of the synthesis (in contrast with conventional flask-based synthesis) affords greater control over growth, new opportunities to study growth mechanisms, and, significantly, the ability to fabricate complex axial heterostructures. We look forward to working with Users to further exploit this new technique.           
Contact:            Dr. Jennifer Hollingsworth

Nano-Mesoscale Materials Integration:  Nanoink Dip-Pen Nanolithography (DPN) 5000 System
The Nanoink DPN 5000 is a state-of-the-art commercial direct-write, AFM tip-based lithography technique capable of multi-component deposition of a wide range of materials with nanoscale registry. DPN has been used to fabricate multiplexed, customized patterns with feature sizes as small as 50 nm or as large as 10 µm on a variety of substrates that are written with molecular or liquid “inks.” Operating under ambient conditions, the system is compatible with a variety of organic, inorganic, and biological “ink” materials (including polymers, alkanethiols, silanes, hydrogels, nanoparticles, proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids). The CINT DPN system is equipped with the Nanoink 2D array accessory, which allows features to be printed rapidly over large areas. This direct-write capability is a user-friendly, benchtop technology that enables patterning without the need for a cleanroom, master stamp or photomask.  DPN can print directly onto pre-existing nano- or microscale features, and though essentially a “bottom-up” fabrication technique, it can be used in conjunction with etching methods for rapid prototyping of, e.g., photomasks and plasmonic structures. The CINT DPN 5000 is further equipped with the Nanoink AFM Modes Kit for conductive AFM (C-AFM), electrostatic force microscopy (EFM), and magnetic force microscopy (MFM).           
Contact:            Dr. Jennifer Hollingsworth

Non-blinking quantum dots: Synthesis and applications           
By exploring effects of shell thickness, core size, core/shell electronic structure, and internal nanoscale interface properties, we have developed non-blinking nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs) that emit in the visible and the near-infrared. These NQDs are also characterized by strongly suppressed Auger recombination and are essentially non-photobleaching. Their characteristic large effective Stokes shift affords minimized self-reabsorption. Their improved performance compared to conventional NQDs has been demonstrated in solid-state light-emitting devices as well as in biological applications as single-molecule optical probes. Although known as "giant" NQD (g-NQDs), these unique optical nanomaterials are still typically <15 nm in size. We continue to advance new g-NQD compositions and applications and aim to engage with Users in fundamental studies and further demonstrations of enhanced applications.            
Contact:            Dr. Jennifer Hollingsworth

Semiconductor Nanocrystal Synthesis:  Optical Nanomaterials by Design           
We emphasize the preparation of high-quality semiconductor nanocrystals, such as quantum dots and quantum rods.  We exploit or develop new methods that afford control over particle size-dispersity, crystallinity, stability and optical/electronic properties.  Typically, our nanocrystals are prepared with a target functionality in mind.  We work closely with physicists, spectroscopists and theorists who inform our synthetic work.  We strive to understand, for example, the effects of particle size, shape, internal heterostructuring, ectornic structure and surface structure/functionalization on nanocrystal properties and, subsequently, to optimize these properties. We focus on the preparation of new compositions (core and core/shell materials; UV to visible to infrared absorbers/emitters, etc.), new shapes (isotropic to highly anisotropic), new heterostructured, hybrid, and multifunctional nanocrystals, composite materials (e.g., high-density nanocrystal/sol-gel processible blends), and biocompatible nanocrystals (water-soluble and functionalized for binding to various biomolecules), as well as self- and directed-assembly of films and composite structures. Nanocrystal chemical-precursor development and ligand/surfactant development are pursued when necessary. Capabilities available include:
  - Facilities for synthesizing and assembling colloidal nanocrystals, and tools for thin-film preparation
  - Expertise in inorganic, organic, and materials chemistry
  - In-lab (and partner-lab) facilities for microstructural and optical/electronic-properties characterization of nanoscale systems
  - Suite of air-free synthesis tools from standard Schlenk techniques to specialized reactors: CEM Discover microwave reactor and Syrris FRX microfluidic flow reactor (3 pump with back-pressure regulator). Microfluidic reactor can be utilized with one of three chip options: (1) Standard serpentine chip for continuous-flow synthesis and collection of nanoparticles (ideal for generation of large quantities of uniform particles), (2) Custom (Dolomite) chip for free-flow electrophoretic separation of nanoparticles at high voltages, and (3) Custom (Dolomite) chip and chip holder for the synthesis of nanowires from substrates held in reactant flow at elevated temperature (up to ~310 C) (see ""Flow SLS"")"           
Contact:            Dr. Jennifer Hollingsworth

Semiconductor nanowires: Solution-phase synthesis, processing and device fabrication           
Using colloidal synthesis methods, in particular solution-phase catalyzed growth processes, we synthesize high-quality, single-crystalline semiconductor nanowires for a range of compositions. These include II-VI, III-V, IV-VI, III2VI3 and I-III-VI2 systems. We tune diameters from ~5-50 nm and lengths from ~200 nm to 10 micron. As-prepared nanowires are soluble in non-polar solvents, but can be transferred to aqueous environments using standard ligand-exchange techniques. We process solution-phase nanowires into the solid-state, creating nanowire thin films and composites for incorporation into various device structures. Beyond conventional approaches, we employ single-source precursors to access complex ternary compositions (e.g., CuInSe2), and we develop novel methods for growth, e.g.,  "flow" solution-liquid-solid (FSLS) microfuidics-based nanowire synthesis (see "Flow-SLS synthesis").  Areas of interest for CINT users:
 - SLS growth of quantum-confined semiconductor nanowire "building blocks": II-VI, III-V, IV-VI, III2VI3 and I-III-VI2 systems
 - Solution-phase processing of nanowires into films and composites (e.g., nanowire-nanoparticle composites)
 - Nanowire-based photovoltaics: device fabrication and basic testing  
 - Controlled Flow-SLS nanowire growth for advanced nanowire heterostructuring and growth kinetics studies.           
Contact:            Dr. Jennifer Hollingsworth

Magnetic Nanoparticle Synthesis           
We emphasize the preparation of high-quality magnetic nanocrystals.  We exploit or develop new methods that afford control over particle size-dispersity, crystallinity, stability and magnetic properties.  Typically, our nanocrystals are prepared with a target functionality in mind.  We work closely with physicists and theorists who inform our synthetic work.  We strive to understand, for example, the effects of particle size, shape, internal heterostructuring, and surface structure/functionalization on nanocrystal properties and, subsequently, to optimize these properties.  Nanocrystal chemical-precursor development and ligand/surfactant development are pursued when necessary. Capabilities available include:
  - Facilities for synthesizing and assembling colloidal nanocrystals, and facilities for thin-film preparation
  - Expertise in inorganic, organic, and materials chemistry
  - In-lab (and partner-lab) facilities for microstructural and magnetic-properties characterization of nanoscale systems.           
Contact:             Dr. Sergei Ivanov

Metallic Nanoparticle Synthesis           
We emphasize the preparation of high-quality metal nanocrystals.  We exploit or develop new methods that afford control over particle size-dispersity, crystallinity, stability and  properties, e.g., plasmonic, catalytic, and low-melting compositions as growth fluxes for nanowire growth.  Nanocrystal chemical-precursor development and ligand/surfactant development are pursued when necessary. Capabilities available include:
- Facilities for synthesizing and assembling nanocrystals, for thin-film preparation, and for creating hybrid structures
- Expertise in inorganic, organic, and materials chemistry
- In-lab (and partner-lab) facilities for microstructural and properties characterization.
Contact:            Dr. Sergei Ivanov

Biomolecular motors synthesis, engineering, and applications            
The biomolecular motors synthesis and engineering capabilities at CINT will enable researchers to produce, modify, and integrate a range of energy-dissipative proteins with nanoscale synthetic materials and systems. Because native biological molecules are, in general, poorly suited for use in synthetic systems, our capability has a strong focus in developing biomolecular motors with enhanced functionality to increase stability and provide strategies for integrating living and non-living components through a common interface. The capabilities that are available to CINT Users include:
  - Microtubule-based motor protein library:
  - Recombinant production (E. coli) and modification of Drosophila kinesin-1 motor proteins including full length, standard and zinc-dependent switchable motors, and truncated standard and switchable motors with biotinylated tails
         - Recombinant production of a thermostable monomeric kinesin (kinesin-3) motor originally isolated from Thermomyces lanuginosus
         - Yeast-based expression of recombinant dynein (minus-end directed) motors with GFP and biotinylated regions
 - Bacteriorhodopsin, light-driven proton pump library including native and recombinant (e.g., His-tag, Cys mutants, etc) versions
 - Genetic engineering of motors via sub-cloning and site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) methods to generate new functional mutants
 - Functionalization chemistries for motor attachment to of bio-compatible nanoparticles including semiconductor, metal, and magnetic nanocrystals
 - Spinning disk microscopy with high-speed CMOS camera for particle tracking of in vitro motor transport
 - Total internal reflectance fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy with three-chip, color CCD camera for characterizing filament and/or particle transport.           
Contact:             Dr. George Bachand

Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell culture facilities            
A wide variety of nanoengineered substrates and nano-probes have been used to study the physiological behaviors of living cells. As such, CINT has capabilities to grow and maintain prokaryotic (i.e., bacterial) and eukaryotic (e.g., fungal) cells, as well a range of mammalian cell lines (e.g., RBL mast cells, RAW macrophages, primary rat neurons, etc). Based on the changing needs of users, inquiries on the availability of specific organisms currently at the Core facility may be obtained by contacting George Bachand. In addition, users wanting to bring organisms to CINT should also contact George Bachand regarding feasibility and ES&H requirements. Specific capabilities that are available to CINT Users include:
 - Biosafety cabinet and water-jacketed CO2 incubator for growth and maintenance of a wide range of eukaryotic cell lines (BSL-1 and 2, based on IBC approvals)
 - Transfection capabilities for plasmid introduction into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
 - Brightfield, phase contrast, and epifluorescence microscopy for cell characterization
 - Spinning disk confocal microscopy with temperature-controlled stage for time-lapse experiments.
Contact:            Dr. George Bachand

Polymeric monolayer systems            
Surface properties are critical in many nanosystems, and the control of surface properties such as wetting, adhesion, and friction are of primary concern.  Monolayer synthesis allows researcher to tailor surface properties utilizing small molecule organic synthesis and polymerization techniques.  Either in situ or ex situ syntheses can be performed where appropriate and multilayers or gels may be produced using similar techniques.  Capabilities that are available include:
 - Monolayer design and formation on planar, particulate, chip-based, or other samples of inorganic oxides, non-oxidized metals, semiconductors, polymers, etc.
  - Synthesis of functional coupling agents, in particular those with functionality.
  - In situ modification of monolayer functionalities where desired functionalities lack compatibility.
  - In situ growth of polymer monolayers and mixed polymer monolayers using free radical, ionic or coordination polymerization reactions.
  - A suite of characterization methods to determine or verify monolayer functionality, structure, wetting properties, etc.
Contact:             Dr. Dale Huber

Fluorescent Gold and Silver Nanoclusters           
Few-atom noble metal nanoclusters are collections of small numbers of gold or silver atoms (typically 2-30 atoms) with physical sizes close to the Fermi wavelength of an electron (~0.5 nm for gold and silver).  These nanoclusters are a missing link between the atomic and nanoparticle behavior of noble metals – exhibiting fluorescence emissions spanning the UV to near IR range. As a compliment to quantum dots and molecular fluorophores, fluorescent metal nanoclusters can be produced using templates of dendrimers and polymers, small molecular ligands, or within biological materials of interest, such as DNA.  We have synthesized and photophysically characterized Ag-nanoclusters (AgNCs), which were templated on DNA, with distinct and narrow excitation and emission profiles tuned to common laser lines. Intrinsically fluorescent recogonition ligands have been created from chimera’s of DNA that template AgNC and aptamers, for the specific and sensitive detection of proteins. More recently, we have developed a DNA detection probe (NanoCluster Beacon, NCB) that “lights up” upon target binding.            
Contact:             Dr. Jennifer Martinez

In Vivo Polymers           
In vivo polymers are genetically engineered polymers that are produced by recombinant DNA techniques. These highly specialized polymers are produced with exceptional yield in bacteria and with defined sequence and typically high biocompatibility. Polymers (elastin-like, silk-like, and resilin) can be created as individual or coblock polymers, and modified for specific functionality (i.e., cell binding or optical reactivity), toward functions in optoelectronics and regenerative medicine.
Contact:            Dr. Jennifer Martinez


1b - Fabrication Capabilities (top-down techniques and tools to create nanoscale/ mesoscale/ microscale features)

Electron Beam Lithography            
The JEOL JBX-6300FS electron beam lithography system is a state-of-the-art tool capable of field emission operation at 100kV acceleration voltage. With a minimum spot size of less than 3nm, the system is capable of line widths less than 8nm in resist. A 19 bit beam deflection amplifier allows beam steps down to 1.25 Å at 100kV. Overlay and field stitching accuracy is better than 20nm in high resolution writing mode. This instrument, in association with etch and deposition capabilities, provides powerful nanofabrication of a wide variety of materials and applications
 - Can handle nominally rectangular samples from 10-25mm in side length
 - Can handle wafers of 2, 3, 4, and 6 inches in diameter
 - Positive resists include ZEP-520A, PMMA, and PMGI
 - Negative resists include NEB-31A  
At the present time, this capability is available to current CINT users. New CINT users can request the electron beam lithography capability only by special arrangement with the Lead CINT scientist on their proposal. Technical questions may be directed to the specialist listed.
Contact:            Anthony James

Micro-nano fabrication
The fabrication capabilities provide researchers with distinctive platforms for investigating standard or hybrid materials. Our 100 mm facility has an unrestricted tool set, which accommodates a wide range of substrates, films, and chemicals. We work closely with other centers/laboratories to allow integration of unique materials or processes into prototype micro/nano systems. The capabilities that are available to CINT Users include:
Fabrication capabilities:
 - Front/backside contact mask photo-lithography (260 nm DUV, 365/400 nm NUV)
 - Contact mask design and fabrication – 0.6 um resolution, 4”, 5” or 7” substrates
 - PVD Metal/Dielectric deposition (E-beam/thermal evaporation, RF/DC Sputter)
 - Dielectric thin film deposition (ICP CVD H-aSi, Si3N4, SiO2, SiON)
 - Reactive ion etching with laser endpoint detection (ICP and RIE fluorine; ICP chlorine; silicon deep RIE)
 - Downstream Microwave Source plasma ash  - Rapid Thermal Annealing (up to 1000°C)
 - Plasma and UV/Ozone cleaning
 - Wet chemistries
 - Wafer dicing and lapping
 - Focused ion beam
 - Electron beam lithography
 - Laser beam direct write
 - In-situ SEM mechanical nanoprobe
 - Critical Point Dryer        
Inspection capabilities:
 - Pd/Au PVD for sample preparation
 - Optical Microscope
 - Confocal microscope
 - Profilometer
 - Probe-station
 - Flexus Stress Measurement
 - Ellipsometer
 - Spectroscopic Reflectometer
 - Four Point Resistivity Probe
Contact:            Dr. John Nogan

Ultrafast Laser System for Rapid Prototyping
We have developed a turnkey, ultrafast laser system for rapid prototyping devices including 2D microfluidics and 3D waveguides in bulk media. The system can also perform multi-photon processing of polymers, surface texturing, and patterning of arbitrary 2D array structures, such as thin film metamaterials, onto a substrate. Feature sizes are user definable and currently range from hundreds of nanometers to <10um.           
Contact:            Quinn McCulloch

Graphene Reactor
We have developed a large area graphene growth capability at CINT that allows us to make graphene samples available to CINT users. The graphene is grown on copper foil by a chemical vapor deposition process using either liquid or gas precursors. We have also developed the techniques to transfer the large pieces of graphene to virtually any substrate for further characterization.           
Contact:           Dr. Andrew Dattelbaum

Thin-film preparation
Preparation and characterization of thin-films using chemical assembly routes is possible for many different types of materials and substrates.  The major focus of activities is on different self-assembly routes to thin-film materials, and on preparative strategies that involve combinations of processing (spin or dip-coating; post-deposition patterning) with self-assembly strategies. 
Contact:            Dr. Andrew Dattelbaum


1c - Manipulate/Assemble Capabilities (methods to arrange/order/integrate discrete entities such as atoms, molecules, particles or other components and make hierarchical structures)

Nanomanipulator for construction of nanowire devices           
We have a custom two-probe nanomanipulator inside of a JEOL 6701F field-emission source SEM. The two probes are controlled independently via piezo actuators with nanometer resolution and can be coarsely positioned within a 7 x 7 x 7 mm3 volume with stick-slip actuators. Typically, we use the probes to pick-and-place individual nanowires onto a device platform fabricated in the Integration Lab for ex situ measurement of electrical or thermal conductivity or to place individual nanowires into a well-defined position with respect to other nanowires or devices.           
Contact:            Dr. Brian Swartzentruber

Biomolecular-Driven Mesoscale Self-Assembly           
Energy-dissipative proteins are applied to drive the self-assembly across multiple length scales, and achieve mseoscopic composites that exhibit far-from-equilibrium dynamics           
Contact:            Dr. George Bachand

Synthesis of amphiphilic monomers and polymerization thereof           
Small organic molecule/ monomer synthesis and characterization, self-assembly and polymerization into structured materials           
Contact:            Dr. Millie Firestone

Biomolecular Recognition and Phage Display            
Nature utilizes molecular recognition for the control of protein-protein and protein-inorganic interactions that are key for control of cell-cycle processes and for the exquisite assembly of inorganic materials.  We have the ability to create recognition molecules through biological means (phage display).  These ligands can be used for recognition ligands in biosensors or for the hierarchical assembly of materials with emergent properties.
Contact:           Dr. Jennifer Martinez

Lipid membranes and self-assembled films
An assortment of capabilities exists for the synthetic preparation of functionalized amphiphiles and their incorporation in lipid vesicles, supported lipid membranes, self-assembled monolayers on silicon surfaces, and Langmuir films.  The self-assembled films can be interrogated with a variety of spectroscopic techniques, which include dynamic light scattering, fluorescence microscopy and spectroscopy, NMR, and XPS, and at the nanoscale via in situ AFM imaging and TEM.  Interactions of metal ions, small molecules, proteins, and whole cells against functionalized films have been previously explored.  The capabilities that are available to CINT Users include:
 - Wet laboratory facilities for the synthesis and characterization of functionalized amphiphilic molecules
 - Liposome preparation via sonicators and extruders
 - Langmuir troughs for monolayer and multilayer film preparation
 - Inverted fluorescence microscope coupled with intensified CCD camera and CCD spectrometer for simultaneous imaging and spectroscopic characterization of Langmuir monolayers
 - Temperature controlled in situ AFM for nanoscale imaging under varying environmental conditions
 - Microcalorimetry to measure binding energies of protein association at lipid membrane surfaces
 - Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) characterization of lateral mobility in substrate-supported lipid membrane assemblies
 - Brewster angle microscopy for characterization of thin films
 - Generation of patterned hybrid and supported bilayer assemblies on derivatized substrates
 - Synthesis and assembly of lipids incorporating molecular recognition elements (peptides, chelates etc.)
Contact:           Dr. Jennifer Martinez

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Fate and Differentiation           
We actively culture and differentiate adult-derived mesenchymal stem cells for the study of their interaction and altered cell-fate with polymers, nanostructured substrates (hard and soft materials of varied tensile strength and patterning), and radiation of varied frequencies.  Studies can include detailed static or dynamic mRNA expression levels, protein expression levels, and morphology (flow cytometry and/or confocal microscopy).
Contact:           Dr. Jennifer Martinez

Peptide- and DNA-based assembly of optical and nanomaterials           
DNA or custom designed and synthesized peptides can be utilized to create 2- and 3-D architectures, with-or-without integrated optical or nanomaterials.           
Contact:           Dr. Jennifer Martinez

Lipid and polymer dynamic membrane-based assemblies
Preparation of vesicle, micelle and 2-dimensional membrane structures based upon combinations of amphiphilic lipids and block-co-polymers.  Optical cofactor incorporation and environmental control to induce dynamic optical response is a primary focus.  Materials can be interrogated with a variety of spectroscopic techniques, which include dynamic light scattering, fluorescence microscopy and spectroscopy, NMR, and XPS, and at the nanoscale via in situ AFM imaging and TEM.  The capabilities that are available to CINT Users include:
 - Liposome, polymersome micelle and membrane architecture preparation via sonicators and extruders
 -  Langmuir troughs for monolayer and multilayer film preparation
 - Inverted fluorescence microscope coupled with intensified CCD camera and CCD spectrometer for simultaneous imaging and spectroscopic characterization of materials
 - in situ AFM for nanoscale imaging under varying environmental conditions
 - Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) characterization of lateral mobility in substrate-supported lipid membrane assemblies
 - Generation of micro-patterned hybrid and supported bilayer assemblies on derivatized substrates.
Contact:           Dr. Gabe Montano

Polymer/sol-gel nanocomposites for biohybrid assembly            
We have developed methods for the preparation of polymer/sol-gel composite materials for biohybrid materials design.  Our primary focus is on the development of materials suitable for long-term storage and transport of biological materials with a particular focus on understanding biological membrane/synthetic material interfaces.  We have designed a number of bio-friendly polymers along with sol-gel preparative methods that minimize conditions harmful to biological specimens. 
Contact:            Dr. Gabe Montano


2a - Structure Measurements (Techniques that deliver real-space coordinate information, including microscopies, tomographies, etc.)

Transmission Electron Microscopy Lab           
The TEM lab at CINT is equipped with a FEI Tecnai G(2) F30 S-Twin 300kV transmission electron microscope. The field emission gun offers a highly coherent electron beam with 0.2 nm point resolution in TEM and 0.19 nm in high angle annular dark field (HAADF) Scanning TEM. The accelerating voltage of the electron beam can also operate at 200 kV and 100 kV with resolutions of 0.25 and 0.32 nm, respectively. The microscope is equipped with an EDAX ECON x-ray detector, Gatan GIF Tridiem electron energy loss spectrometer, Gatan Ultrascan 1000 CCD camera, Gatan bright field, Gatan annular dark field, and Fischione Instruments HAADF STEM detectors. A variety of sample characterization and in situ studies may be conducted using FEI single tilt, low background single tilt, and double tilt holders; Nanofactory STM, AFM, NanoIndentation, 16 lead, and STM-X6 holders; Gatan 2.3 mm single tilt holder with a Faraday cup, and double tilt cyro holders; Protochips Aduro double tilt heating with biasing holder; and the Hummingbird Scientific liquid flow with biasing holder. The instrument functions for a range of experimental techniques for elemental analysis, energy-filtered imaging, and the structural characterization of nanomaterials with or without an external stimulus. Sample preparation of electron transparent samples for TEM analysis can be fabricated using a Leica EM UC7 ultramicrotome, tripod polisher, or mechanical thinning and ion milling.
Contact:            Dr. Katie Jungjohann

Low energy electron microscope (LEEM)
The low energy electron microscope (LEEM) is a unique and versatile surface microscope that can be used to view dynamic processes on surfaces in real time with a spatial resolution of 7-8 nm and a depth resolution of one atomic layer. The LEEM provides high image contrast between regions on a surface with different atomic structures or chemical compositions. Because it is a non-scanning microscope, dynamic processes can be observed with a time resolution limited only by the video recording rate of the image acquisition system. The LEEM is also equipped with an in situ scanning tunneling microscope for acquiring atomic-scale images of the samples. Current interests for LEEM applications include: 1) studies of the fundamental mechanisms underlying self-assembly and pattern formation on solid surfaces, 2) studies of the evolution of surface morphology including thermal smoothing mechanisms, 3) studies of the fundamental aspects surface phase transitions and surface chemical reactions, 4) studies of doping distributions and surface oxide charging effects in microelectronic device structures, and 5) the development of LEEM-IV analysis to obtain 3-D compositional maps of the surface and near surface regions of crystalline solids.
Specific capabilities of the LEEM include:
 - Ultra-high vacuum (<1x10-10 Torr) in main chamber
 - Sample cleaning by ion bombardment and thermal annealing
 - Surface characterization by Auger Electron Spectroscopy
 - Images can be recorded with the sample at temperatures from 200 K to 1800 K
 - Images can be recorded with a flux of atoms or molecules impinging on the surface
Contact:            Dr.Gary Kellogg

High Resolution Electron Microscope
The FEI Magellan 400 SEM provides sub-nanometer spatial resolution from 1kV to 30 kV. By using low voltages, only the surface of the sample interacts with the electron beam and thus insulators/beam sensitive samples can be imaged without the need for conductive coatings and the amount of surface data is maximized. These capabilities make this tool ideal for investigations of nanotubes, nanowires, nanocomposites, and other materials where workhorse SEMs do not have the low-voltage resolution required for sensitive surface imaging. 
This system features:
 -Schottky thermal emission source with UniColore mode to give a highly coherent beam (less than 0.2 eV energy spread)
 - spatial resolutions of 0.8 nm at 1kV and above in secondary electron mode.
 - EDAX Apollo XV Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) detector for elemental analysis.
 - EDAX Hikari Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) detector for crystallographic orientation determination.
 - Nabity electron beam lithography patterning capability.
 - annular STEM detector (spatial resolution of 0.7 nm).
Contact:            Dr. Nate Mara

High resolution Scanning Electron Microscope, Focused Ion Beam, and Electron Beam Lithography
We have two FEI field-emission source SEMs in the Integration Lab at CINT. The Nova NanoSEM 450 includes a Nabity electron beam lithography (EBL) patterning capability. The Nova 600 Nanolab from FEI Company combines ultrahigh resolution SEM with FIB capabilities in one machine for sample analysis, 2D and 3D machining, and prototyping. The resolution of 1.1 nm at 15 kV in secondary electron mode is further enhanced when using the STEM detector.  This dual-beam machine also allows for electron and ion induced deposition of metals from gas source precursors (currently, Pt) with line widths of 50 nm (ion beam) and 20 nm (electron beam). An auto FIB, auto TEM, and pattern generation module is available for ion milling to provide automation of many tasks. The system also includes a Nabity EBL patterning capability.
Contact:            Doug Pete

High-Resolution X-Ray Diffraction System
The XRD instrument is comprised of a high-precision XRD platform with small-angle x-ray scattering, and variable temperature/pressure, thin-film, and microdiffraction accessories. It is capable of variable-temperature and pressure crystal phase identification and quantification; size, size-distribution, and shape analysis of nanocrystals and crystalline domains; film thickness in single and multilayer films together with core and shell thickness determination in heterogeneous core/shell nanocrystals; stress analysis in films and heterogeneous nanomaterials; and quality control of epitaxial films and superlattices.
Contact:            Dr. John Reno

Atomic force microscopy
We have a Digital Instruments Atomic Force Microscope available for routine imaging.
Capabilities include:
 - Atomic force microscopy: topography and phase imaging.
 - Conducting tip atomic force microscopy: scanning capacitance, scanning Kelvin force, piezoelectric force, and scanning current-voltage microscopy.
Contact:           Dr. Brian Swartzentruber

Scanning tunneling microscopy
We have two commercial ultra-high vacuum (UHV) RHK Instruments variable-temperature (~40K to 1000K) scanning tunneling microscopes (STM) and two home-built UHV STMs with custom data acquisition and control software and electronics. Three of these instruments are set up for atomic-scale lithography using hydrogen-passivated silicon surfaces. One RHK STM is available for general surface science experiments.
Contact:            Dr. Brian Swartzentruber

Ion Beam Materials Laboratory
The core of the laboratory consists of a 3.2 MV Pelletron® tandem ion accelerator and a 200 kV ion implanter. The tandem accelerator has five beam lines with a series of experimental stations that support various research programs. The operation of IBML and its interactions with users are organized around core facilities and experimental stations. The IBML provides and operates the core facilities, while supporting the design and implementation of specific apparatus needed for experiments requested by users of the facility. This results in a facility with competencies in routine ion beam experiments and the versatility to cater to the individual researchers needs. Detailed information is available at            
Contact:            Dr. Yongqiang Wang

Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope
The Quanta 400 FEG from FEI Company is a high resolution electron microscope that allows data collection from a variety of samples due to its ability to image at relatively high background pressures while reducing sample charging. The system is equipped with a cooling stage, solid-state STEM detector, BSE detector, and Genesis EDS.
Contact:           Darrick Williams

X-Ray Diffraction System
The Rigaku Ultima III is a powder diffractometer that operates in a theta/2theta mode that can analyze many different types of samples (bulk powders, thin-films and liquids). The system is equipped with a standard powder stage, a thin-film stage, a small angle X-ray scattering stage (SAXS), and a Differential Scanning Calorimetry-X-ray Diffraction Stage (DSC-XRD) stage. Also we have software to analyze bulk powders (Crystal Maker, Jade, GSAS), thin-film (diffraction, reflectivity, SAXS) and liquids that contain (Spherical, Core/Shell and Rods nanoparticles).
Contact:            Darrick Williams

Small-angle / Wide-angle X-ray scattering
Bruker Nanostar for wide q-range characterization of soft materials under controlled environments
Contact:            Dr.Millie Firestone

In situ Dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy
An Asylum MFP-3D-SA AFM system allows for both standard and user-defined operation modes. A specific application focus of this new AFM is imaging and spectroscopic force measurements of dynamic biological and biomimetic assemblies and structure formation.
Contact:           Dr. Gabe Montano

The XRD instrument is comprised of a high-precision XRD platform with small-angle x-ray scattering, and variable temperature, thin-film, and microdiffraction accessories. It is capable of variable-temperature crystal phase identification and quantification; size, size-distribution and shape analysis of nanocrystals and crystalline domains; film thickness in single and multilayer films together with core and shell thickness determination in heterogeneous core/shell nanocrystals; stress analysis in films and heterogeneous nanomaterials; and quality control of epitaxial films and superlattices.
Contact:            Dr. Gabe Montano

Super Resolution Imaging
We have constructed a super-resolution microscope based upon single molecule detection and localization (e.g. PALM, STORM, or d-STORM), including both acquisition and analysis software. Can be used to image static cellular structure or selected nanomaterials.
Contact:            Dr. Jim Werner


2b - Property Measurements
(Methods that provide characteristic optical, electrical, mechanical, chemical, biological information that may be ensemble averaged or spatially dependent.)

Electrochemistry of Nanoscale Structures
We have a microfabricated fluidic platform that permits the investigation of electrochemical energy storage processes in real time inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM).  This Electrochemical Discovery Platform is comprised of top and bottom micromachined chips that form a sealed, 100nm thick cavity that can contain liquids while exposed to high vacuum.  This electrochemical platform features 10 electrical leads with customizable passivation layers that converge at the center of the device and reside on an electron transparent (40nm thick) silicon nitride membrane. This device, which we combine with state-of-the-art electrochemical testing equipment capable of ~10fA current levels, allows users to perform controlled electrochemistry on small volumes (e.g., single nanowires or 10’s of nanoparticles) of precisely positioned nanomaterials, while visualizing microstructural changes in the material of interest via TEM.
Contact:           Dr.Tom Harris

MEMS and NEMS Characterization
Our Nanomechanics Discovery Platform features a variety of MEMS-based actuators (both thermal and electrostatic) and microscale cantilevers that enable one to understand phenomena associated with the motion, displacement, or vibration of nanoscale structures.  Our lab capabilities include multiple interferometers with temperature-dependent stages and a laser Doppler vibrometer for the detection of MEMS/NEMS resonator motion, resonance frequency, and quality factor.  The microcantilever arrays on the Nanomechanics Platform permit studies of the mechanical properties and of mechanical deformation and fracture in deposited thin-film materials.
Contact:           Dr.Tom Harris

Variable-Temperature Measurements of Nanostructure Transport Properties
We have 7 closed-cycle cryostats set up for measuring the thermal and electrical transport properties of 1-D (i.e., nanowires and nanotubes) and 2-D (various thin films) nanostructures between 10K and 350K.  Using assembling techniques such as dielectrophoresis and nanomanipulation, we can position individual nanowires or tubes on our Transport Discovery Platforms, which permit temperature-dependent measurements of electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and Seebeck coefficient.  For thin-film thermal property measurements, we have built a time-domain thermoreflectance pump-probe system that is capable of measuring thermal transport in thin films ~10nm thick, from room temperature to 10K.
Contact:            Dr.Tom Harris

Variable and low temperature electronic transport
Capabilities for electrical transport characterization of nanoelectronic devices are an Oxford Heliox 3He system for 0.3 K to 30 K, an Oxford MX 400 dilution refrigerator for reaching 0.02 K and a Janis flow cryostat for 4K to 300K.  Magnetic fields up to 13 Tesla are available using a superconducting solenoid magnet.  Cryostats are wired with 24 DC and low frequency lines as well as 4 intermediate frequency coax lines.  Hall resistance measurements can be performed using the 4K flow cryostat and a 0.17 T electromagnet.
Contact:            Dr. Mike Lilly

Hysitron PI-85 SEM Picoindenter
This in-situ SEM strain stage represents a significant capability enhancement in support of CINT’s signature efforts in in-situ nanomechanics. The system has a load range from 1μN to 30mN, offers in-situ indentation, bending, compression and tension testing capabilities, includes a heating stage rated to 400°C, an electrical characterization package, and has outstanding resolution of both load (<1μN) and displacement (<1nm).
Contact:           Dr. Nate Mara

Mechanical properties from very small regions
The mechanical properties of thin films and layered materials or very small volumes of materials cannot be measured using conventional techniques. Nanoindentation methods have been developed to probe materials at depths of tens of nanometers over regions with dimensions of hundreds of nanometers. Using continuous stiffness measurement, we have the capability to measure changes in mechanical properties as a function of depth. Substrate or layering effects can also be examined. We have also measured material length scales and size effects resulting from dislocation concentrations and dislocation interactions with other structural defects. Changes in material properties resulting from impurities, second phase inclusions, or engineered nanostructures can also be measured.  Specific capabilities include two nanoindenters with continuous stiffness measurement up to 2 N, lateral force measurement, AFM scanning, nanopositioning, and a thermal stage.
Contact:            Dr. Nate Mara

Nanomanipulator for in situ nanostructure electrical characterization
We have a custom two-probe nanomanipulator inside of a JEOL 6701F field-emission source SEM. The two probes are controlled independently via piezo actuators with nanometer resolution and can be coarsely positioned within a 7 x 7 x 7 mm3 volume with stick-slip actuators. The two probes and sample are connected to an Agilent B1500A Device Parameter Analyzer to measure electrical conductivity of nanostructures. Typical experiments include measuring the conductivity of as-grown nanowires by passing current through a nanowire between a probe and the growth substrate or between the two probes.
Contact:            Dr. Brian Swartzentruber

Mid-infrared Time-domain spectroscopy           
A system for measuring optical transients in the mid infrared (7-14 microns) is available. The system employs phase-matched electro-optic sampling for detection and difference frequency generation for creating the IR transients (~400fs). The system allows for characterization of phase and amplitude of optical fields in addition with time-resolution. This system can be used to obtain phase and amplitude response of optical samples in transmission or reflection in this IR optical range.
Contact:            Dr.Igal Brener

Optomechanics capabilities will consist of advanced design, fabrication, and testing of optomechanical structures.  A test station capapable of coherent coupling light on and off chip at wavelenghts spanning all telecommunications bands as well as the near infrared will be constructed, as well as the RF equipment and software for mechanical and electrical readout.  New projection lithography techniques will be used to selectively metallize 3D surfaces and explore optomechanics at ultra-high frequencies sub-wavelength volumes.
Contact:            Dr. Ryan Camacho

Terahertz spectroscopy
Broadband terahertz time-domain (THz-TDS) spectroscopy provides simultaneous amplitude and phase information, and becomes a powerful tool for the characterization of materials and devices including semiconductors, complex metal oxides, multiferroics, metamaterials, and fingerprints in many chemicals and biological tissues. Multiple THz-TDS based capabilities are available for conventional THz-TDS, optical-pump THz-probe (OPTP), and high power nonlinear measurements. These capabilities include:
 - Fiber-coupled photoconductive conventional THz time-domain spectroscopy for angle resolved reflection, transmission, and scattering measurements
 - Tilted Wavefront high power THz-pump THz-probe spectroscopy
 - Cryogenic capability (4 - 700K) in combination with these THz systems
 - Optical-pump THz-probe spectroscopy configured for transmission measurements, using 800 nm, 400 nm (SH) and 267 nm (TH) pump, with additional capability of magnetic field up to 8 T and temperature down to 1.5 K
Contact:            Dr. Hou-Tong Chen

Carbon Nanotube and Nanomaterials Spectroscopy and Characterization
Our carbon nanomaterials (nanotubes, graphene, graphene oxide) chemistry, processing, and synthesis, capabilities are supported by extensive optical characterization capabilities, including near-IR photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, microscopy, and imaging instrumentation.  Near-IR capabilities include wide-area direct imaging, spectroscopy, time-correlated single photon counting, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy able to access a range of sample types from the single tube and flake level to ensemble measurements of solutions, bulk solids, devices, and films.  Capability for extensive Raman characterization also exists and encompasses  tunable and fixed wavelength Raman (tunable from 345 nm to 1000 nm exc., with fixed instrumentation at 785, 532, 514, and 633 nm). Tunable (700-1000 nm exc.) and fixed wavelength (514 nm) micro-Raman for single-nanostructure spectroscopy and imaging also exist.  Finally, standard UV-Vis-nearIR absorption capability is also available.
Contact:           Dr. Steve Doorn

Near-IR Fluorescence Microscopy, Imaging, and Spectroscopy
Near-IR microscopy capability is built around an inverted microscope system that offers both confocal (diffraction-limited) excitation for rastor-imaging and wide-area excitation for direct 2-D imaging enabled by 2-D InGaAs and EM-CCD camera imaging arrays.  This direct imaging capability allows simultaneous imaging over both arrays for real-time access of differing spectral regions.  The microscope is also integrated to a monochromator system for performing single-element/nanostructure spectroscopic measurements with either InGaAs or CCD linear arrays.  The microscope is also paired with a time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) system for performing lifetime measurements and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy at the small ensemble and single nano-structure levels.  Excitation sources for the microscopy capability include CW diode laser excitation over a range of visible wavelengths and a ps (3 ps pulsewidth) fiber laser with excitations ranging from 480 nm to 650 nm.   Additionally, at the ensemble level we have available standard commercial instrumentation with tunable lamp source excitation for full near-IR photoluminescence excitation mapping.  We also have available for ensemble level measurements an FT-IR based system with tunable lamp and diode laser excitation for rapid spectral acquisition.
Contact:           Dr. Steve Doorn

Raman Spectroscopy, Microscopy, and Imaging
Extensive capability for ensemble level and single-nanostructure Raman spectroscopy is available.  Instrumentation includes broadly tunable (UV to near-IR) excitation sources paired to systems for ensemble measurements (tunable from 345 nm to 1000 nm exc., with fixed instrumentation at 785, 532, 514, 405, and 633 nm).  Micro-Raman capability is also available for imaging and single-element spectroscopy, and includes tunable excitation (700-1000 nm exc.) and fixed wavelength (514, 785 nm) confocal microscopy systems.   These systems are available for study of a wide range of materials ranging from solutions to bulk solids, thin films, and device structures.  Materials studies can include as just some examples carbon nanomaterials, bio and soft material composites, quantum dots, nanowires, complex oxides, etc.
Contact:           Dr. Steve Doorn

FTIR Spectroscopy and Microscopy
Extensive Fourier-transform spectroscopy capabilities are available at CINT, covering a wide range of infrared spectral wavelengths. Two FTIR microscopes are available: a Nicolet Magna 860 for bigger spots and a Bruker FTIR microscope that allow transmission and reflection spectra of samples with 10-micrometer resolution, which is near diffraction-limited for the wavelengths used. The latter system also possesses a spatial mapping capability allowing to build full IR hyperspectral image of the sample. Timeresolved measurements are possible with a step-scan capability included with the system. In the near future, ultrashort-pulse laser will be coupled to the microscope allowing localized sample excitation. Future plans also include coupling ultrashortpulse mid-IR supercontinuum pulses into the system for the purpose of full pump-probe interferometric capability in an all-reflective microscopy setup. Additionally, a Bruker IFS 66 FTIR spectrometer with a low temperature cryostat is available allowing measurements of transmitance and reflectance from room temperature to 4K.
Contact:           Dr. Anatoly Efimov

Ultrafast broadband characterization of photonic waveguides
An expertise exists to study complicated waveguiding structures including functionalized and nonlinear optical fibers, photonic crystal waveguides and plasmonic or hybrid systems. Capabilities include spectral interferometry for linear characterization and cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating for nonlinear processes. Tunable femtosecond lasers near 800 and 1550 nm are available with pulse shaping and derived supercontinua options. Continuous-wave Erbium-doped broadband sources and amplifiers are also available with gigahertz optional modulation.
Contact:           Dr. Anatoly Efimov

Ultrafast spectroscopy and coherent control
MilliJoule and microJoule 100-fs Ti:Sapphire lasers equipped with optical parametric amplifiers and a difference-frequency generator covering a wide range of wavelength (266-4000nm) are available for custom setups for various pump-probe configurations in materials, photonic and biophotonic research. Femtosecond interferometry and spectral interferometry are available in addition to standard lock-in detection techniques. Coherent control experiments with an amplitude/phase LC-SLM pulse shaper are possible.
Contact:            Dr. Anatoly Efimov

NanoSight LM10-HSB Multi-Parameter Nanoparticle Characterization System
System and associated Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) software suite automatically tracks, sizes and counts nanoparticles on an individual basis. Through direct observation of particle motion and scattering behavior, particles are simultaneously sized and different materials identified by their disparate scattering intensities. Results are displayed as a frequency size distribution graph and output to spreadsheet, and concentration is directly determined. The high-sensitivity (HS) camera affords a lower detection limit of ~10 nm (upper detection limit ~2000 nm), and an added fluorescence measurement capability allows facile assessment of dark/bright nanoparticle fractions (total number of nanoparticles determined under light-scattering mode and bright particles determined under fluorescence mode). Polydisperse populations can be accurately and quantitatively assessed without the “intensity-biasing“ that is characteristic of DLS because size is calculated on a particle-by-particle basis. Ideal for time-dependent studies of particle aggregation (aqueous and non-aqueous-solvent compatible).
Contact:            Dr. Jennifer Hollingsworth

Apertureless near-field scanning optical microscopy and spectroscopy
This capability is designed to perform high resolution, 3 dimensional mapping of plasmonic field of metallic nanostructures and exciton-plasmon interactions of metal-semiconductor hybrid nanostructures.
Contact:           Dr. Han Htoon

Optical spectroscopy of individual semiconductor nanostructures
Optical spectroscopy has been utilized widely in studies of light-nanostructure interactions.  Conventional spectroscopic techniques however can only probe an average response of a large ensemble of nanostructures.  CINT house several capabilities that allow to perform wide variety of optical imaging and advanced spectroscopy studies on the individual nanostructures in the temperature range of 4? to 340? K.  In addition, CINT also possesses capability to directly correlate the optical properties of individual nanostructures with their structural properties.  This unique capability is achieved through performing optical spectroscopy studies and high resolution structural imaging including atomic force and scanning/transmission electron microscopies on the same nanostructures. Advanced single nanostructure spectroscopy capabilities of CINT includes:
 - Photoluminescence (PL) and PL excitation spectrosocpy
 - Raman imaging and spectroscopy
 - Time resolved and time tagged PL spectroscopy
 - Photon correlation/cross-correlation spectroscopy
 - Single nanostructure, time resolved, spectro-electrochemistry
Contact:           Dr. Han Htoon

Simultaneous electrical and optical characterization of nano-photonic and -photovoltaic devices
Understanding the competition between recombination and separation/collection of photo generated electron-hole pairs across the interfaces of nanomaterials hold the key to successful development of nanomaterial based novel photonic/photovoltaic devices.   CINT possesses unique capabilities to perform photo-current and other electrical transport measurements simultaneously with advanced single nanostructure optical spectroscopies.
Contact:           Dr. Han Htoon

Time-Resolved Photoluminescence
Photoluminescence (PL) and its temporal dynamics constitute one of the most fundamental techniques for uncovering fundamental physical properties of nanomaterials and their coupling to the environment. CINT possess multiple time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) systems  covering wide range of excitation and detection spectral range, a large span of time scale (150 femtoseconds(fs)– milliseconds), wide temperature ranges (3K – 400K) and sample configuration (single nanostructure and ensemble as well as different chemical and electrochemical environments.  State of the art equipments include
1. Coherent Ti-sapphire laser oscillator (>3.5W average power) in conjunction with doubler and tripler attachments and pulse picker 
2.  Coherent Chameleon Ti-Sapphire Laser coupled to Mira OPO
3.  Continuum ps light source (IChrome TVIS tunable from 480 to 650 nm, 3ps pulsewidth)
4. Hamamatsu Streak Camera capable of (time resolution and spectral range)
5.  Multiple Si based single photon counting modules (time resolution: 50 ps, Spectral range:  400-1000nm)
6.  InGaAs bsed single photon counting modules.
7.  Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detector (time resolution: <50 ps, Spectral range:  800-1500nm)
8.  Fluorescence upconversion system from Ultrafast Systems: mixes the fluorescence from the sample with an intense beam from the Ti-S laser and photon counting to obtain time-resolved PL from the visible to the near IR.     
Contact:            Dr. Han Htoon

Multinuclear NMR spectroscopy           
Sensitive to 30 different nuclei, the 90MHz Anasazi multinuclear FT NMR spectrometer instrument is an invaluble and robust tool for a quick characterization of a variety of organic, inorganic, and organometallic precursors used in our laboratories.
Contact:            Dr.Sergei Ivanov

Simultaneous TGA/DSC Analyzer
Thermogravimetric Analysis and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TGA/DSC) (Netzsch STA 449 F1 Jupiter) are complementary techniques to investigate material’s response to different temperatures: mass change (e.g., decomposition or sublimation temperatures) and thermal changes often unaccompanied by the mass change as a function of temperature (e.g., melting, glass transition, second order phase transition, enthalpy and heat capacity measurements). Both techniques have become indispensible in the design of new metal precursors and understanding the structure/composition of nanocomposites.
Contact:            Dr.Sergei Ivanov

UV Micro Photoluminescence
A dedicated UV microphotoluminescence with CW or pulsed excitation is available. This system photoluminescence from 365nm to 500nm.  Available excitation sources are pulsed 266nm and CW 325nm.  The UV microscope objective available is a 50x Mitutoyo with numerical aperture of 0.4 and a working distance of 12mm.
Contact:            Dr. Ting (Willie) Luk

Variable Angle Spectral Ellipsometer (IR and UV-Visible)           
Two instruments are available: V-VASE and IR-VASE. The UV-Visible Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometer (VASE) has spectral coverage from 0.24-2.5um, is equipped for ellipsometric measurements on a small sample area, and can be used as scatterometer. These features are particularly useful for metamaterials, photonic crystals, gratings and nano-antenna arrayed with only a small patterned area. This instrument can also perform reflection and transmission measurements to yield absorption information, and attenuated total reflection measurements to study surface photonic states.  The IR Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometer (IR-VASE) covers a spectral range of 2-40um. For this instrument, the sample can be heated to maximum of 300C; when using this heater stage only a single angle of incidence of 70 deg is available. These instrument allow optical characterization of thin films and substrates in these spectral ranges, for example refractive index (n) and extinction (k) coefficients, or real and imaginary parts of permittivities.
Contact:            Dr. Ting (Willie) Luk

Ultrafast broadband optical spectroscopy
Ultrafast spectroscopy provides important information about the excitation and relaxation dynamics occurring in complex nanomaterials.  A suite of ultrafast excitation and diagnostic capabilities spanning wavelengths from the ultraviolet to the far-infrared are available for dynamic nanoscale characterization.  These capabilities enable coherent quantum control experiments, as well as experiments for dynamic materials characterization.  The available capabilities include:
- Femtosecond broadband transient absorption spectroscopy (infrared to ultraviolet) with microscopic spatial resolution
- Can be done at low temperatures (down to 4 K) and high magnetic fields (up to 8 T)
- Capability to both photoexcite and probe complex materials over a broad wavelength range
- Degenerate and non-degenerate four-wave mixing
- Static and time-resolved second harmonic generation
- Static and time-resolved magneto-optical Faraday and Kerr spectroscopy
- Ultrafast scanning tunneling microscopy
Contact:            Dr. Rohit Prasankumar

Optical microscopy and single molecule spectroscopy
Advanced spectroscopic techniques can be combined with optical microscopy to provide a suite of tools for characterizing the spatially dependent properties of nanoscale materials. The available capabilities include:
 - Microscopy: : light, fluorescence, and high-resolution hyper-spectral
 - Single-molecule fluorescence detection, imaging and spectroscopy techniques including : confocal scanning microscopy (one- and two-photon excitation) ; wide-field, CCD camera imaging using epi-illumination or total internal reflection excitation ; single-molecule fluorescence flow cytometry ; time-correlated single-photon counting ; fluorescence correlation spectroscopy ; polarization anisotropy; single molecule tracking in two and three dimensions
 - Near-field scanning optical microscopy, combined with both cw and transient absorption spectroscopy
 - Low temperature optical microscopy/spectroscopy in combination with various scanning probe techniques.
Contact:            Dr. Peter Goodwin

Simultaneous TGA/DSC Analyzer
Thermogravimetric Analysis and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TGA/DSC) are complementary techniques to investigate material’s response to different temperatures: mass change (e.g., decomposition or sublimation temperatures) and thermal changes often unaccompanied by the mass change as a function of temperature (e.g., melting, glass transition, second order phase transition, enthalpy and heat capacity measurements). Both techniques have become indispensible in the design of new metal precursors and understanding the structure/composition of nanocomposites.
Contact:           Dr. Dale Huber

Holographic optical trapping and force measurement system
The instrument is comprised of a modular optical trapping fluorescence microscope that enables the non-contact 3-dimensional manipulation of trapped objects and a force measurement module capable of measuring interaction forces on the order of 0.1-900 pN, allowing one to observe the unfolding of supramolecular structures, the action of molecular motors, and measure the surface adhesion forces of biological cells. This laser trapping system complements the suite of top down and bottom up fabrication and manipulation methods at CINT, and fills a gap in the mechanical characterization in fluidic environments of soft structures composed of nanocomponents, such as biological and biomimetic materials and nanoparticles. We expect that the versatility of the system will be of great benefit to members of our user community interested in addressing the challenges of manipulating and interrogating the interaction between hard and soft nanomaterials in their native environments and integrating these components into composite nanomaterials and functional devices.
Contact:            Dr. Wally Paxton


2c - Function/Response Measurements (Experiments that provide dynamic information under time-dependent conditions/stimulation)

2D and 3D Single Molecule and Particle Tracking
Conventional 2D single molecule tracking via fluorescence microscopy with an EM-CCD camera. Also have unique capabilities in active feedback for time-resolved 3D tracking of single nanoparticles, organic dyes, and fluorescent proteins. Can explore 3D transport in live cells or selected soft materials.
Contact:            Dr. Jim Werner

Biomolecular transport manipulation and characterization
Instrumentation to characterize transport of biomolecular motors and filaments including high contrast DIC, wide-field fluorescence, total internal reflectance microscopy (TIRF), and spinning disk confocal microscopy
Contact:            Dr. George Bachand

Multi-Photon Laser Scanning Confocal and Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscope
This instrument consists of Multi-Photon Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope (Olympus FV1000) with a Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Attachment (Becker & Hickl). It is among the most advanced, commercially available optical imaging systems, and gives CINT a world-class capability for optical characterization of any array of biological, synthetic, and hybrid nanomaterials. Techniques enabled by this system include Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP), Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET), Total Internal Reflectance Fluorescence (TIRF). The FLIA module will enable spatial mapping of fluorescence lifetimes.  MCP-PMT detector allows for lifetime resolution imaging in near-IR.
Contact:            Dr. Gabe Montano

Single-molecule manipulation, biomolecular motor mechanics and application of calibrated magnetic forces           
Instrumentation for parallel application of calibrated vertical magnetic forces with simultaneous evanescent wave scattering readout of polymer length.  Suitable for:
 - Unzipping individual short DNA molecules to monitor protein binding, measure equilibrium association constants, and probe binding kinetics with dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS).
 - Epi-illumination tethered particle motion (TPM) monitoring of single-molecule transcription with and without dynamic magnetic forces.
 - Characterizing unbinding forces of any receptor-ligand system that can be set up in the magnetic microsphere / planar glass slide configuration.    
Instrumentation for application of calibrated horizontal magnetic forces or application of fields using customized magnetic pole piece configurations.  Suitable for:
 - Calibrating magnetic forces on polymer / superparamagnetic nanoparticle composites using micromachined piconewton force sensing spring; sensitive to 300 femtograms magnetite (or equivalent sat. moment), 1 pN force sensitivity, and >= 500 nm microsphere radius.
 - Laterally stretching / unzipping single molecule tethers (e.g. lambda DNA, chromatin) monitoring force-extension with cross-correlation video tracking.
 - Application of forces to molecular motor / shuttle systems via attached magnetic microspheres.
 - In-cell manipulation of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles.       
Custom software applications for tethered particle motion (TPM) analysis, in-plane motion tracking, dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS) analysis and simulation, polymer force-extension modeling.
Contact:            Dr. Peter Goodwin


3a - Prediction (Theory, modeling and computational techniques that explain structure/property relationships and provide verifiable hypothesis.)

FDTD and MODE simulations
CINT has extensive electromagnetic software modeling capabilities. We can model E&M field propagation using FDTD commercial codes and modes of optical cavities, waveguides, etc, using a separate software for mode calculations. The software packages run in a cluster of high-end workstations.
Contact:            Dr. Igal Brener

Noise spectroscopy, single molecule spectroscopy, single spin detection, inelastic tunneling spectroscopy, strongly correlated electrons, scanning probes microscopy, DNA nanoelectronics
Techniques: Green’s functions, nonequilibrium kinetics, electronic transport
Contact:           Dr. Sasha Balatsky

Theory and modeling of ac transport in nano-devices; single-spin measurement; spin qubits in solids
Contact:           Dr. Sasha Balatsky

Theory and models for nano-electro-mechanical and spin systems out of equilibrium, such as single electron transistors coupled to mechanical degrees of freedom
Techniques: field theory Keldysh formalism for non-equilibrium systems, approximation techniques based on separation of time scales, impurity-averaged perturbation theory for studying disorder effects.
Contact:           Dr. Sasha Balatsky

Theory of transport and optical properties of semiconductor nanostructures and conjugated organic materials; properties of devices fabricated from these materials
Techniques: electronic structure, quantum non-equilibrium models, and mesoscale device models.
Contact:            Dr. Sasha Balatsky

Theory and simulation of complex fluids including polymers, polymer nanocomposites, and inhomogeneous charged fluids
Techniques: molecular theory including classical density functional theory for fluids, self-consistent field theory, and PRISM theory; molecular dynamics simulations
Contact:            Dr. Amalie Frischknecht

A parallel, classical density functional theory code for inhomogeneous atomic and polymeric fluids
Contact:            Dr. Amalie Frischknecht

Computational models for complex fluids, polymer melts and networks, and  nanoparticle self-assembly
Techniques: molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations
Contact:            Dr. Gary Grest

First-principles quantum and multi-scale modeling of the structure and properties of surfaces, interfaces, and defects
Techniques: Kohn-Sham density functional theory, time-dependent density functional theory, the cluster expansion approach, kinetic and statistical Monte Carlo method.
Contact:            Dr. Normand Modine

A parallel quantum density functional theory code for investigating the electronic structure and predicting ground state and dynamical properties of systems containing up to 1000 atoms.
Contact:            Dr. Normand Modine

A parallel molecular dynamics code for classical atomistic and coarse grained level simulations
Contact:            Dr. Mark Stevens

Simulations using atomistic or coarse-grained models for studying nanoparticles, biomolecules and polymers
Techniques: Molecular dynamics simulations
 - Atomistic simulations of interactions between coated nanoparticles
 - Simulation of charged polymers
 - Molecular simulation of interfacial phenomena
Contact:            Dr. Mark Stevens

Computational modeling of nonlinear optical responses (e.g. two-photon absorption, second and third harmonic generations) in organic and organo-metallic chromophores
Techniques: quasi-particle density matrix response formalism in combination with time-dependent density functional theory            .
Contact:           Dr. Sergei Tretiak

Computer Cluster
A 100-node computer cluster has been installed featuring modern architecture (8CPU/32Gb memory per node) and utilizing fast interconnect technology for parallel computations. The new cluster allow us to increase our computational power by a factor of 10, memory capacity by a factor of 5, and storage capacity by a factor of 10. Furthermore, fast interconnect capabilities will make it possible to run medium/large scalecomputational tasks in parallel.
Contact:           Dr. Sergei Tretiak

Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of biomolecules and molecular motors
Techniques: molecular dynamics simulations
Contact:           Dr. Sergei Tretiak

Quantum-chemical simulation of photoinduced adiabatic and non-adiabatic excited state dynamics in conducting polymers and (bio)organic chromophores
CEO: LANL-developed parallel molecular dynamics code based on semiempirical approaches
TURBOMOLE: ab initio molecular dynamics package
Reduced Hamiltonian models for treating state crossings and conical intersections
Contact:           Dr. Sergei Tretiak

Theory and models of multi-particle excitations and energy/charge transport phenomena in semiconductor nanocrystals and their assemblies
Techniques: density functional theory and solid-state (e.g. tight-binding) approaches
Contact:            Dr. Sergei Tretiak

Theory of quantum dynamics of coupled systems, including inelastic tunneling dynamics and fast optical probes of correlated systems
Techniques: exact diagonalization, Lanczos, and numerical quantum dynamics in a large many-body Hilbert space
Contact:            Dr. Stuart Trugman

Theory of ultrafast optical probes of correlated systems
Techniques: Interpretation of experimental ultrafast data; exact quantum dynamics simulations
Contact:            Dr. Stuart Trugman

First-principles quantum many-body theory to strongly correlated electronic systems
 - First –principles simulations of electronic, magnetic, optical properties in complex metal oxides.
 - Dynamical mean-field theory in combination of density functional theory in local density approximation for bulk d-electron and f-electron materials.
 - First-principles quantum many-body simulations of quantum impurity embedded in metallic host.
 - Construction of low-energy models based on the Wannier functions.
Contact:            Dr. Jianxin Zhu

Local electronic structure  and bulk properties in inhomogeneous superconductors (including the presence of magnetic field)
Analytical and numerical technique: Lattice Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory
Contact:            Dr. Jianxin Zhu

Numerical simulations and modeling of quantum criticality and local electronic structure in strongly correlated electronic systems
 - Extended dynamical mean-field theoretical study of Kondo lattice models
 - Cluster dynamical mean-field theory for periodic Anderson lattice models
 - Simulation of single and multiple impurity problem in fermonic and bosonic media
 - Simulation of local electronic structure around Kondo hole and Kondo stripes in Kondo and Anderson lattice models
 - Techniques: Numerical Renormalization Group method; Hirsch-Fye Quantum Monte Carlo Method, Continuous Quantum Monte Carlo Method; Large-N based approach; Gutzwiller approximation; Slave-boson mean-field method
Contact:            Dr. Jianxin Zhu

Theory of electrical and thermal transport through unconventional junctions out of equilibrium
Analytical techniques: Keldysh non-equilibrium Green's function; scattering theory based on transfer matrix and Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwij theroy.
Contact:            Dr. Jianxin Zhu

Theory of ultrafast optical probes of correlated systems
Techniques: slave-boson mean-field modeling and Gutzwiller variational  wavefunction  approach
Contact:            Dr. Jianxin Zhu


3b - Analysis (Methods to extract knowledge from experimental data, including visualization, data reduction, etc.)

A variety of tools for visualization and analysis
Contact:            Dr. Jianxin Zhu


IV.  Other SNL/LANL National User Facilities

Los Alamos Neutron Science Center – LANSCE
For detailed information see:

National High Magnetic Field Laboratory – NHMFL
For detailed information see:

Combustion Research Facility – CRF
For detailed information see: